Ate Psych: Chapter 3 Biology and Behavior Flashcards


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Ate Psych
Chapter 3
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9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade
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1

the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

2

the neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including the muscles and glands

peripheral nervous system

3

the nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

neuron

4

the part of the neuron that produces the energy need for the activity of a cell

cell body

5

the branchlike extensions of a neuron that receive impulses and conduct them toward the cell body

dendrites

6

a long tube-like structure attached to a neuron that transmits impulses away from the neuron cell body

axon

7

a white, fatty substance that insulates axons and enables rapid transmission of neural impulses

myelin

8

small fibers branching out from an axon

axon terminals

9

the junction between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron

synapse

10

a chemical messenger that carries impulses across the synaptic gaps between neurons

neurotransmitters

11

a column of nerves within the spine that transmit messages to and from the brain

spinal cord

12

the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, muscles, and the skin

somatic nervous system

13

the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration and digestion.

autonomic nervous system

14

a structure at the base of the brain stem that controls vital functions such as heartbeat and breathing

medulla

15

a brain structure located at the top of the brain stem that is involved in respiration, movement, and sleep

pons

16

the large mass of the fore brain, consisting of two hemispheres

cerebellum

17

the part of the brain that is involved in attention, sleep, and arousal

reticular activating system

18

the structure of the brain that relays messages from the sense organs to the cerebral cortex

thalamus

19

the neural structure located below the thalamus that controls temperature, hunger, thirst, and various aspects of emotion

hypothalamus

20

a group of neural structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotion and motivation

limbic system

21

the large mass of the fore-brain, consisting of two hemispheres

cerebrum

22

the bumpy, convoluted surface of the brain; the body's control and information processing center

cerebral cortex

23

the nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex

corpus callosum

24

areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in such mental operations as thinking, memory, learning, and problem solving

association areas

25

the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

endocrine system

26

chemicals produced by the endocrine glands that regulate through adjustments of the nervous system

hormones

27

the genetic transmission of traits from one generation to the next

heredity

28

the basic building blocks of heredity

genes

29

a microscopic threadlike structure in the nucleus of every living cell; it contains genes, the basic units of heredity

chromosomes