Campbell Biology: AP Biology Vocabulary Flashcards


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created 8 years ago by kayleemichele
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Campbell Biology
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AP Edition Campbell Biology Ninth Edition
updated 8 years ago by kayleemichele
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biology, science, life sciences
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1

polar covalent bonds

the electrons spend more time closer to oxygen than hydrogen

2

polar molecule

overall charge is unevenly distributed

3

cohesion

substance held together by hydrogen bonds

4

adhesion

clinging of one substance to another

5

surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

6

kinetic energy

energy of motion

7

heat

a form of energy

8

temperature

a measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules, regardless of volume

9

calorie (cal)

the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1oC

10

joule (J)

one joule equals 0.239 cal; one cal equals 4.184 J

11

specific heat

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of water to change its temperature by 10C

12

evaporative cooling

the hottest molecules, those with the greatest kinetic energy, are the most likely to leave as gas

13

solution

a liquid that is a completely homogenous mixture of two or more substances

14

solvent

the dissolving agent of a solution

15

solute

the substance that is dissolved

16

colloid

a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid

17

molecular mass

the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule

18

hydrocarbons

organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen

19

isomers

compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties

20

structural isomers

differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms

21

cis-trans isomers

carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms, but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the inflexibility of double bonds

22

enantiomers

isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon, one that is attached to four different atoms/groups of atoms

23

hydroxyl

-OH

alcohols

polar; can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds

24

carbonyl

>CO

Ketones: carbonyl group is within carbon skeleton

Aldehydes: carbonyl group is at the end of carbon skeleton

found in sugars; may be structural isomers

25

carboxyl

-COOH

acts as an acid - can donate H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar

26

amino

-NH2

Acts as a base

27

sulfhydryl

-SH

can form covalent bond and stabilize protein structure

28

phosphate

-OPO3 2-

have potential to react with water=energy

contributes negative charge

29

methyl

-CH3

addition to DNA affects expression of genes

affect shape and function in sex hormones

30

polymer

a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds

31

monomers

repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer

32

dehydration reaction

two molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule

33

hydrolysis

reverse dehydration reaction

34

carbohydrates

include sugars and polymers of sugars

35

monosaccharide

have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH2O

36

disaccharide

two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage

37

glycosidic linkage

covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction

38

polysaccharides

macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages

39

starch

a polymer of glucose monomers

40

glycogen

a polymer of glucose

41

cellulose

structural polysaccharide; used in cell walls in plants

42

chitin

structural polysaccharide; carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons

43

lipids

mix poorly with water

44

fat

constructed from glycerol and fatty acids

45

fatty acid

has a long carbon skeleton (16-18 carbon atoms); carbon at one end is part of a carboxyl group (hence the acid) - rest is hydrocarbon chain

46

triacylglycerol

three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule

47

saturated fatty acid

no double bonds between carbon atoms in chain so as many hydrogen atoms as possible bond to the carbon skeleton

most animal fats

solid at room temperature

48

unsaturated fatty acid

1+ double bonds with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double-bonded carbon

plants and fish fats

liquid at room temperature

cis double bond prevents molecules from packing close together

49

phospholipid

make up cell membranes

50

steroids

lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

51

cholesterol

common component of animal cell membranes; precursor from which other steroids are synthesized

52

polypeptides

polymers of amino acids

53

protein

biologically functional molecule that consists of one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional shape

54

enzymatic protein

selective acceleration of chemical reactions

55

defensive protein

protection against disease

56

storage protein

storage of amino acids

57

transport protein

transport of substances

58

hormonal protein

coordination of an organism's activities

59

receptor protein

response of cell to chemical stimuli

60

contractile and motor protein

movement

61

structural protein

support

62

amino acid

organic molecule possessing both an amino group and a carboxyl group

63

nonpolar side chains; hydrophobic amino acids (of protein)

glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, trytophan, proline

64

polar side chains; hydrophilic (of proteins)

serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine, asparagine, glutamine

65

electrically charged side chains; hydrophilic (of proteins)

aspartic acid, glutamic acid (negative)

lysine, arginine, histidine (basic/positive)

66

peptide bond

when two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they become joined by a dehydration reaction, resulting in a covalent bond

67

primary structure of protein

a linked series of amino acids with a unique sequence

68

secondary structure of protein

result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone

alpha helix

beta pleated sheet

69

tertiary structure of protein

the overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains of the various amino acids

hydrophobic reaction contributes to tertiary structure

disulfide bridges further reinforce the shape of a protein

70

quaternary structure

overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of polypeptide subunits

71

denaturation

misshapen protein - biologically inactive

72

chaperonins

protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins

73

nucleic acids

polymers made of monomers called nucleotides

74

nucleotides

composed of nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar (pentose), one or more phosphate groups

75

pyrimidine

six-membered sing of carbon and nitrogen atoms

cytosine (C, found in DNA and RNA, pairs with G), thymine (T, found only in DNA, pairs with A), uracil (U, found only in RNA)

76

purine

six-member ring fused to five member ring

adenine (A, found in DNA and RNA, pairs with T), guanine (G, found in DNA and RNA, pairs with C)

77

deoxyribose

sugar found in DNA

78

ribose

sugar found in RNA