The Integumentary System

Helpfulness: +2
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by TheGeneral
1,539 views
Anatomy and Physiology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What are the functions of the Integumentary System?

  • Two-way protective barrier
  • Temperature regulation
  • Houses the sensory receptors
  • Secretes important fluids
2

Derm/o

Dermat/o

Skin

3

Kerat/o

hard, horny

4

Necr/o

death

5

Onych/o

nail

6

Xer/o

dry

7

BCC

Basal cell carcinoma

8

MM

malignant melonoma

9

What are the accessory organs of the skin?

  • Sweat glands
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Hair
  • Nails
10

What do sweat glands do?

Cool the body by perspiration

11

What are sebaceous glands?

Oil glands

12

What is the function of skin?

  • Protection
  • House nerve receptors
  • secrete fluids
  • regulate temperature
13

How does the skin cool the body?

  • sweat evaporation
  • dilates superficial blood vessels to release heat
14

How does skin conserve heat?

  • Constricts superficial blood vessels to keep warm blood away from the surface
  • continuous fat layer acts as insulation
15

What is Ecchymosis

A bruise due to blunt trauma

16

erthy/o

red

17

-derm/o

skin

18

What is erythroderma?

red skin

19

Wheal

round, swollen surface lesion that is normally an allergic reaction

20

Albinism

Genetic condition where the body is unable to make melanin

21

What is BCC?

Most common form of skin cancer in the US

22

Other types of skin cancer?

  • Squamous cell
  • Melanoma
23

Biopsy

The removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination

24

hist/o

tissue

25

What does I&D stand for?

Incision and drainage

26

Xenograft

Skin graft from another species

27

Exfoliative cytology

Scraping cells from tissue to examine under a microscope

28

Curettage

Removal of superficial skin with a curette or scraper

29

Ichthyoderma

dry scaly skin

30

Frozen section

A thin slice of tissue that is cut from a frozen specimen and is often used for rapid microscopic diagnosis

(thyroid cancer is an example)

31

What are the functions of the Respiratory System?

  • Inhale fresh air into the lungs
  • exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide
  • exhale stale air
32

lob/o

lobe

33

pneumo/o

lung, air

34

endo

within

35

-pnea

breathing

36

ARDS

Adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome

37

Nasal cavity

  • Air enters through the nares
38

What is the nasal cavity divided by?

Nasal Septum

39

What separates the nasal cavity from the mouth?

Palate in roof of mouth

40

The trachea is also known as _______________

windpipe

41

What does the trachea do?

Carries air from the larynx to the main bronchi

42

How large is the trachea?

Approximately four inches in length

43

Distal end of trachea divides

Bronchial tubes

44

Bronchial tubes

Forms left and right main or primary bronchi

45

What does each bronchial tube enter?

a lung

46

What branches to form secondary and tertiary bronchi?

Bronchial tubes

47

The two distinct regions of the skin are....

  • Epidermis
  • dermis
48

What is the most superficial layer of the skin? Give an example

Epidermis

example: Epithelial tissue

49

What underlies epidermis layer and is mostly fibrous connective tissue?

Dermis

50

What is the Epidermis made of?

Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

51

List the four distinct layers of the epidermis

  • Stratum basale
  • Stratum spinosum
  • Stratum granulosum
  • Stratum lucidum (only think skin)
  • Stratum corneum
52

List the four cell types in the epidermis

  1. Keratinocytes
  2. Melanocytes
  3. Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
  4. Tactile (Merkel) cells
53

Keratinocytes

  • produce fibrous protein keratin
  • most cells of the epidermis
  • tightly connected by desmosomes
54

Melanocytes

  • 10 - 15% of cells in deepest epidermis
  • produce pigment melanin
55

Dendritic (Langerhans) cells

  • Macrophages
  • Key activators of the immune system
56

Tactile (Merkle) Cells

Sensory touch receptors found in the epidermis

57

Deepest layer of the epidermis

Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)

58

Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)

  • Deepest epidermal layer
  • also called Stratum germinativum
  • firmly attached to dermis
  • single row of stem cells
  • Melanocytes compose 10-25% of this layer
59

What do the single row of stem cells in the epidermis do?

  • They are actively mitotic
  • Produce daughter cells
  • One cell from basal layer to surface takes 25-45 days
  • One cell remains in stratum basale as stem cell
60

Stratum Spinosum

  • Prickly layer of the epidermis
  • several layers thick
  • Cells look like spiked iron balls
  • Dendritic cells are abundant
61

Stratum Granulosum

  • Granular layer
  • thin - four to six cell layers
  • Cell appearance changes
  • Cells above this layer die