The Integumentary System
What are the functions of the Integumentary System?
- Two-way protective barrier
- Temperature regulation
- Houses the sensory receptors
- Secretes important fluids
Basal cell carcinoma
What are the accessory organs of the skin?
- Sweat glands
- Sebaceous glands
What do sweat glands do?
Cool the body by perspiration
What are sebaceous glands?
What is the function of skin?
- House nerve receptors
- secrete fluids
- regulate temperature
How does the skin cool the body?
- sweat evaporation
- dilates superficial blood vessels to release heat
How does skin conserve heat?
- Constricts superficial blood vessels to keep warm blood away from the surface
- continuous fat layer acts as insulation
What is Ecchymosis
A bruise due to blunt trauma
What is erythroderma?
round, swollen surface lesion that is normally an allergic reaction
Genetic condition where the body is unable to make melanin
What is BCC?
Most common form of skin cancer in the US
Other types of skin cancer?
- Squamous cell
The removal of a small piece of tissue for laboratory examination
What does I&D stand for?
Incision and drainage
Skin graft from another species
Scraping cells from tissue to examine under a microscope
Removal of superficial skin with a curette or scraper
dry scaly skin
A thin slice of tissue that is cut from a frozen specimen and is often used for rapid microscopic diagnosis
(thyroid cancer is an example)
What are the functions of the Respiratory System?
- Inhale fresh air into the lungs
- exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide
- exhale stale air
Adult (or acute) respiratory distress syndrome
- Air enters through the nares
What is the nasal cavity divided by?
What separates the nasal cavity from the mouth?
Palate in roof of mouth
The trachea is also known as _______________
What does the trachea do?
Carries air from the larynx to the main bronchi
How large is the trachea?
Approximately four inches in length
Distal end of trachea divides
Forms left and right main or primary bronchi
What does each bronchial tube enter?
What branches to form secondary and tertiary bronchi?
The two distinct regions of the skin are....
What is the most superficial layer of the skin? Give an example
example: Epithelial tissue
What underlies epidermis layer and is mostly fibrous connective tissue?
What is the Epidermis made of?
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
List the four distinct layers of the epidermis
- Stratum basale
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum lucidum (only think skin)
- Stratum corneum
List the four cell types in the epidermis
- Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
- Tactile (Merkel) cells
- produce fibrous protein keratin
- most cells of the epidermis
- tightly connected by desmosomes
- 10 - 15% of cells in deepest epidermis
- produce pigment melanin
Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
- Key activators of the immune system
Tactile (Merkle) Cells
Sensory touch receptors found in the epidermis
Deepest layer of the epidermis
Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
- Deepest epidermal layer
- also called Stratum germinativum
- firmly attached to dermis
- single row of stem cells
- Melanocytes compose 10-25% of this layer
What do the single row of stem cells in the epidermis do?
- They are actively mitotic
- Produce daughter cells
- One cell from basal layer to surface takes 25-45 days
- One cell remains in stratum basale as stem cell
- Prickly layer of the epidermis
- several layers thick
- Cells look like spiked iron balls
- Dendritic cells are abundant
- Granular layer
- thin - four to six cell layers
- Cell appearance changes
- Cells above this layer die