Which of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis?
microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus
Mutualism is a relationship
that sometimes provides benefits for both members such that one or both parties cannot live without the other.
A protozoan and its resident bacteria invade the body of a worm. The bacteria releases toxins and exoenzymes that immobile and digest the worm, and the protozoan and bacteria absorb the nutrients produced. the relationship between the protozoan and the bacteria would best be described as
the fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in immunocompromised people it overgrows resulting in severe respiratory problems. The fungus is best described as
both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen
Chagas' disease is transmitted by a but with mouthparts that penetrate blood vessels. Which type of exposure does this represent?
subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel
The close contact between newborns and family members allow them to become ____ with microbes that become established as their microbiota.
In which of the following do the mucous membranes serve as a portal of entry for disease?
A pathogen is introduced into the body when the person rubs the eye with contaminated fingers and the pathogen is washed into the nasal cavity by the way of tears.
Which of the following statements regarding the demonstration of the etiology of disease is FALSE?
The suspect agent must be the only potential pathogen present in disease cases.
Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby acquires normal microbiota?
Microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy.
Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic pathogens?
treatment of a cancer patient with radiation
Which of the following is considered part of the indigenous microbiota of the female reproductive system?
both Candida and Lactobacillus
Which of the following is an example of an exotoxin?
Among the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus are hemolysin, coagulase, hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these factors contribute to the ability of S. aureus to invade the body?
Which of the following stages of an infectious disease is the most severe?
the illness period
Which of the following is transmitted by the parenteral route?
Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?
cockroach transmission of Shigella
Which of the following is a sign of disease?
A nosocomial disease if a a disease acquired
in a health care facility
Diseases that are induced by modern medical procedures are referred to as _____ infections.
the bacterium that causes tuberculosis can be expelled fro the lungs by a cough and remain viable in the air for an hour or more. If a person inhales the bacteria from the air, what type of transmission has occurred?
a person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and develops valley fever as a result. Valley fever is an example of a ______ disease.
In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) in the united states. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over 40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents an ________ disease.
the incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States was 12.43/100,000 cases. this means
there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the United States in the year 2000
A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to lose the ability to produce fimbriae and become less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen lost?
the ability to adhere to cells of the body
In the wake of the cyclone that his Myanmar (southeast asia) in 2008, there were widespread reports of typhoid fever. Which of the following was the most likely mode of transmission?
Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's postulates to study a disease?
Aerosols may be involved in _____ transmission of pathogens.
inanimate objects involved in the indirect contact transmission of pathogens.
Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven using Koch's postulates?
Haemophilus influenzae and the flu
Which of the following diseases may be reduced by improved public sanitation measures?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?
incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at daycare in the morning and the other child attends the daycare facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within a day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?
treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of nosocomial infection?
Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is correct?
Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M
A pathogen is best described as
any microorganism that causes disease
Microbes known as transient microbiota are
organisms that remain in the body for a short time.
The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the
type of microbe that causes the disease
Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as
microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.
A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be taken by public health agencies to stop the spread?
educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.
Commensalism is best described as a
relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits and the other is unharmed.
The condition called parasitism is characterized as a
relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.
An axenic environment is one
that is free of microbes
the condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as
an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.
A reservoir is
a source of microbial contamination
Toxins that affect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract are (endotoxins/ enterotoxins/ exotoxins).
The degree to which a microbe is able to cause disease is know as its (morbidity/ virulence/ toxicity).
Places in the body where there is no normal microbiota are referred to as (sterile/ aseptic/ axenic).
nervous system function may be impaired by the action of (endotoxins/ neurotoxins/ cytotoxins).
the (incubation/ morbidity/ prodromal) period is the time between infection and the occurrence of the first symptoms or signs of the disease.
Staphylococcus bacteria are commonly present in the human nasal cavity but rarely cause disease of the upper respiratory system. this situation is an example of (commensalism/ mutualism/ parasitism).
Lipid A is an (cytotoxin/ endotoxin/ exotoxin) that stimulates the body to release chemicals that cause fever, inflammation, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, shock, and blood coagulation.
Persons with asymptomatic infections may be (contaminants/ reservoirs/ zoonoses) of disease.
Spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of (vehicle/ direct/ indirect) contact transmission.
Biological (sources/ vectors/ carriers) not only transmit pathogens, but also serve as hosts for the manipulation of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogens life cycle.
The bacterium that causes cholera is capable of living independently in freshwater. As a consequence, cholera epidemics primarily involve (nonliving/ animal/ zoonotic) reservoirs.
the study of the cause of disease is known as (epidemiology/ etiology).
The hepatitis C virus normally establishes a (latent/ chronic/ subclinical) infection and may be asymptomatic for a decade.
the study of when and where diseases occur is known as (analytical/ descriptive/ experimental) epidemiology.
Visions attach to target host cell by means of (capsules/ receptors/ ligands).
The large population of pathogenic microbes found in health care settings contribute to (nosocomial/ iatrogenic/ epidemic) infections.