Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Bones (Part 1) Flashcards
How do you classify bones?
internal tissue orginization
These bones are small, flat, irregular bones between the flat bones of the skull.
These bones have complex shapes with short, flat notched, or ridged surfaces.
These bones are small and boxy.
These bones are thin with parallel surfaces, provide protection for underlying soft tissues and offer extensive surface area for skeletal muscle to attach to.
These bones are long and slender and are typically found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes.
These bones are small and flat. There are only two of them
Concerning the structure of a long bone, the heavy wall of compact bone surrounding the central space called the medullary cavity is what?
Concerning the structure of a long bone, the wide part at each end that articulates with other bones and is mostly made up of sponge bone is called what?
The meeting point of the diaphysis and epiphysis is known as what?
Give an example of a flat bone
A flat bone has compact bone on the outside and spongy bone on in inside, similar to a sandwich. what is the spongy layer called?
These form narrow pathways through the bone matrix between lacunae and blood vessels for nutrients and waste exchange.
This covers the outer surface of bones (except at the joints) and consists of outer fibrous layers and inner cellular layers.
This membrane is an incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavity, covers trabeculae of spongy bone, and lines the central canals.
An endosteum contains what cells?`
Where the cellular layer is incomplete, the matrix is exposed allowing osteoclasts and osteoblasts to do what?
remodel matrix components
What are the 4 kinds of bone cells?
These cells are the most abundant, maintain the bone matrix, live in lacunae and are connected by canaliculi.
What are the two major functions of osteocytes?
maintain protein and mineral content of the bone matrix
help repair bone damage
What is the basic functional unit of compact bone?
Osteocytes are arranged in ??? around a ??? containing blood vessels that supply blood to and from the osteon.
These radiate through the lamellae containing the lacunae of osteons with one another and the central canal.
These are passageways lying perpendicular to the central canal that carry blood vessels deeper into the bone and to the marrow cavity.
This is found at the outer and inner surfaces of bones where they are covered by the periosteum and endosteum.
What kind of osteon arrangement in bones makes them very strong when stressed along the axis of alignment?
Parallel to the long axis of the diaphysis
Spongy bone doesn't have osteons but rather a matrix that forms an open network of what?
The space between trabeculae is filled with what?
Red bone marrow
Trabeculae are oriented along what?
What are bone markings?
points of muscle, tendon attachments that allow vessels and nerves throughway and where other bones articulate
What are the three kinds of bone markings?
This kind of bone marking is usually found along the bone surface.
These bone markings are where tendons and ligaments attach and where adjacent bones articulate (joints).
These bone markings are where blood vessels and nerves enter the bone.
Give the 4 different kinds of projection bone markings.
Give the 6 different kinds of depression and opening bone markings.
The axial skeleton has how many bones?
The axial skeleton consists of what three major regions?