Micro Bio Chp 8 Exam 3

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Microbiology
Chapter 8
Medical Micro Kingwood TX
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1

Recombinant DNA technology can be most accurately defined as the

deliberate modification of the genome of an organism for practical purposes.

2

In the 20th century, scientists harnessed the natural metabolic reactions of bacteria to make _____ for the first time in an industrial setting.

acetone

3

Which of the following items is NOT a part of the name of a restriction enzyme?

the gram reaction of the source bacterium

4

The natural role of restriction enzymes in bacteria is to

protect the cell from invading phages

5

A library of cloned sequences representing the expressed genes of an organism is known as a

gene library

6

Which of the following restriction enzyme sites would produce blunt-ended fragments?

CCC ^ GGG

7

Recent modifications of microbes have produced

microbes which facilitate extraction of metals from mining ores

8

Which of the following statements regarding vectors is FALSE?

Vectors are generally over 100,000 base pairs in size

9

Synthetic nucleic acids are useful as

DNA probes, primers, and antisense RNAs

10

Mutagens are useful in biotechnology research for

producing organisms with altered phenotypes

11

Which of the following is essential to PCR?

both DNA primers and DNA polymerase

12

If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result?

DNA replication would stop after one cycle

13

Which of the following would be an appropriate sequence of temperature for PCR?

94*C, 65 C , 72C

14

If you started with a single DNA molecule, how many would you have at the end of six PCR cycles?

64

15

In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules move toward the _____ electrode because they have an overall _____ charge.

positive; negative

16

Which of the following procedures might be used to detect the presence of genetic sequences of a virus in a sample?

Southern blotting or PCR

17

A northern blot differs from a Southern blot in the

type of nucleic acid being isolated

18

Which method of inserting DNA into cells is illustrated in this figure?

protoplast fusion

19

The DNA double helix can be separated into single strands using

either heat or NaOH

20

The sequencing and analysis of an organism's genetic information is called

genomics

21

Which of the following devices is used for PCR?

a thermocycler

22

DNA fingerprinting can be used

for forensics and detection of uncultivable organisms.

23

A researcher inserted DNA fragments from an organism into plasmids and introduced the modified plasmids into bacterial cells. Which of the following methods would be the most efficient means of identifying which clones contain a specific gene of interest?

use a labeled synthetic probe complementary to the gene sequence

24

Subunit vaccines are safer than traditional vaccines because they

are acellular and do not pose a risk for causing the disease.

25

Which of the following recombinant tools is NOT in DNA fingerprinting?

reverse transcriptase

26

Transgenic organisms

contain genes from other organisms

27

Which of the following microbes produces a protein that kills a variety of insect pests?

Bacillus thuringiensis

28

Synthetic nucleic acids are produced

using computer controlled machines to assemble a single strand nucleic acid.

29

If all the following DNA fragments were analyzed on an electrophoresis gel, which one would migrate farthest from the negative electrode?

250 base pairs

30

Which of the following procedures would be used to introduce DNA into a single mouse cell?

microinjection

31

The procedure used to identify individuals by their unique genetic sequences is known as

DNA fingerprinting

32

An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is know as

FISH

33

Which of the following is generally NOT considered an ethical issue regarding recombinant DNA technology?

answering basic research questions

34

Two men may be the father of a child. this figure shows the results of a DNA fingerprint analysis to determine paternity. M is the mother, C is the child, A and B are the two men. Which is the best interpretation of these results?

the man identified as B is probably the father

35

Which of the following microbes has been genetically engineered to contain a protein that helps protect crops from freezing?

Pseudomonas

36

Synthesis of cDNA requires the use of

reverse transcriptase

37

Probes used for detecting genetic sequence are frequently composed of

synthetic nucleic acids and labeled conjugates, such as fluorescent dyes.

38

______ are used for cutting DNA molecules into fragments.

restriction enzymes

39

A microarray is assembled using

single-stranded DNA and silicon chips

40

Which of the following is NOT a goal of recombinant DNA technology?

making it possible to clone humans

41

In Southern blotting, DNA molecules are immobilized on

nitrocellulose membranes

42

_____ are used in the detection of DNA by FISH.

Synthetic DNAs and fluorescent tags

43

Injecting DNA into cells can be accomplished using

micropipettes, or compressed air and gold beads.

44

DNA encoding a normal gene is inserted into cells from a patient with a defective form of the gene. Recombinant cells are identified and isolated, and returned to the patients body. this is an example of?

gene therapy

45

Some of the strongest opposition to the application of recombinant DNA technology concerns

modification of food crops

46

The use of microbes to make practical products such as vaccines or hormones is called (genomics/ recombination/ biotechnology)

biotechnology

47

A technique using fluorescent-tagged probes to detect specific DNA sequences in their natural locations is known as (FISH/ PCR/ BLOTTING)

FISH

48

Nucleic acid molecules used to deliver new genes to cells are called (plasmids/victors/ clones).

vectors

49

Restriction (enzymes/ proteases), first isolated from bacterial cells, cut DNA molecules at specific sites.

enzymes

50

Short nucleic acid molecules used to locate complementary sequences in a larger population of molecules are called (probes/ primers/ vectors)

probes

51

A set of clones representing the entire genome of an organism is known as a gene (recombinant/ map/ library).

library

52

The northern blot is a technique used to detect specific RNA molecules in a larger population of molecules that have been separated by gel ( electroporation/ electrophoresis).

electrophoresis

53

Small RNAs that bind to an mRNA and alter its expression are known as (antisense/ probes/ restriction) RNAs.

antisense

54

The process of locating genes within the nucleic acid of an organism is called (genetic/ library/ clone) mapping.

genetic

55

The insertion of foreign DNA directly into a cell's nucleus using a glass micro pipet is called (microporation/ electroporation/ microinjection).

microinjection

56

Genetic (screening/ sequencing/ cloning) can be used to detect mutant genes associated with genetic diseases in individuals before any clinical symptoms are noted.

screening

57

A DNA (library/ microarray) may be used to study the complex, changing patterns of mRNA production in an organism.

microarray

58

Beta-carotene, the biochemical precursor to vitamin A, can be added to rice by using (biotechnology/ cloning/ recombinant) DNA technology, thereby increasing its nutritional value.

recombinant

59

Study of the genome of Deinococcus radiodurans may provide insight into preventing or correcting genetic damage resulting from (radiation/ mutation).

radiaton

60

Vectors usually contain genetic (markers/sequences) such as antibiotic genes or fluorescent tags.

markers