Recombinant DNA technology can be most accurately defined as the
deliberate modification of the genome of an organism for practical purposes.
In the 20th century, scientists harnessed the natural metabolic reactions of bacteria to make _____ for the first time in an industrial setting.
Which of the following items is NOT a part of the name of a restriction enzyme?
the gram reaction of the source bacterium
The natural role of restriction enzymes in bacteria is to
protect the cell from invading phages
A library of cloned sequences representing the expressed genes of an organism is known as a
Which of the following restriction enzyme sites would produce blunt-ended fragments?
CCC ^ GGG
Recent modifications of microbes have produced
microbes which facilitate extraction of metals from mining ores
Which of the following statements regarding vectors is FALSE?
Vectors are generally over 100,000 base pairs in size
Synthetic nucleic acids are useful as
DNA probes, primers, and antisense RNAs
Mutagens are useful in biotechnology research for
producing organisms with altered phenotypes
Which of the following is essential to PCR?
both DNA primers and DNA polymerase
If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result?
DNA replication would stop after one cycle
Which of the following would be an appropriate sequence of temperature for PCR?
94*C, 65 C , 72C
If you started with a single DNA molecule, how many would you have at the end of six PCR cycles?
In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules move toward the _____ electrode because they have an overall _____ charge.
Which of the following procedures might be used to detect the presence of genetic sequences of a virus in a sample?
Southern blotting or PCR
A northern blot differs from a Southern blot in the
type of nucleic acid being isolated
Which method of inserting DNA into cells is illustrated in this figure?
The DNA double helix can be separated into single strands using
either heat or NaOH
The sequencing and analysis of an organism's genetic information is called
Which of the following devices is used for PCR?
DNA fingerprinting can be used
for forensics and detection of uncultivable organisms.
A researcher inserted DNA fragments from an organism into plasmids and introduced the modified plasmids into bacterial cells. Which of the following methods would be the most efficient means of identifying which clones contain a specific gene of interest?
use a labeled synthetic probe complementary to the gene sequence
Subunit vaccines are safer than traditional vaccines because they
are acellular and do not pose a risk for causing the disease.
Which of the following recombinant tools is NOT in DNA fingerprinting?
contain genes from other organisms
Which of the following microbes produces a protein that kills a variety of insect pests?
Synthetic nucleic acids are produced
using computer controlled machines to assemble a single strand nucleic acid.
If all the following DNA fragments were analyzed on an electrophoresis gel, which one would migrate farthest from the negative electrode?
250 base pairs
Which of the following procedures would be used to introduce DNA into a single mouse cell?
The procedure used to identify individuals by their unique genetic sequences is known as
An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is know as
Which of the following is generally NOT considered an ethical issue regarding recombinant DNA technology?
answering basic research questions
Two men may be the father of a child. this figure shows the results of a DNA fingerprint analysis to determine paternity. M is the mother, C is the child, A and B are the two men. Which is the best interpretation of these results?
the man identified as B is probably the father
Which of the following microbes has been genetically engineered to contain a protein that helps protect crops from freezing?
Synthesis of cDNA requires the use of
Probes used for detecting genetic sequence are frequently composed of
synthetic nucleic acids and labeled conjugates, such as fluorescent dyes.
______ are used for cutting DNA molecules into fragments.
A microarray is assembled using
single-stranded DNA and silicon chips
Which of the following is NOT a goal of recombinant DNA technology?
making it possible to clone humans
In Southern blotting, DNA molecules are immobilized on
_____ are used in the detection of DNA by FISH.
Synthetic DNAs and fluorescent tags
Injecting DNA into cells can be accomplished using
micropipettes, or compressed air and gold beads.
DNA encoding a normal gene is inserted into cells from a patient with a defective form of the gene. Recombinant cells are identified and isolated, and returned to the patients body. this is an example of?
Some of the strongest opposition to the application of recombinant DNA technology concerns
modification of food crops
The use of microbes to make practical products such as vaccines or hormones is called (genomics/ recombination/ biotechnology)
A technique using fluorescent-tagged probes to detect specific DNA sequences in their natural locations is known as (FISH/ PCR/ BLOTTING)
Nucleic acid molecules used to deliver new genes to cells are called (plasmids/victors/ clones).
Restriction (enzymes/ proteases), first isolated from bacterial cells, cut DNA molecules at specific sites.
Short nucleic acid molecules used to locate complementary sequences in a larger population of molecules are called (probes/ primers/ vectors)
A set of clones representing the entire genome of an organism is known as a gene (recombinant/ map/ library).
The northern blot is a technique used to detect specific RNA molecules in a larger population of molecules that have been separated by gel ( electroporation/ electrophoresis).
Small RNAs that bind to an mRNA and alter its expression are known as (antisense/ probes/ restriction) RNAs.
The process of locating genes within the nucleic acid of an organism is called (genetic/ library/ clone) mapping.
The insertion of foreign DNA directly into a cell's nucleus using a glass micro pipet is called (microporation/ electroporation/ microinjection).
Genetic (screening/ sequencing/ cloning) can be used to detect mutant genes associated with genetic diseases in individuals before any clinical symptoms are noted.
A DNA (library/ microarray) may be used to study the complex, changing patterns of mRNA production in an organism.
Beta-carotene, the biochemical precursor to vitamin A, can be added to rice by using (biotechnology/ cloning/ recombinant) DNA technology, thereby increasing its nutritional value.
Study of the genome of Deinococcus radiodurans may provide insight into preventing or correcting genetic damage resulting from (radiation/ mutation).
Vectors usually contain genetic (markers/sequences) such as antibiotic genes or fluorescent tags.