What is the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus?
Ganglion cells pass processed information to it. The retinal axons from each visual field of the two eyes are combined in preparation for depth perception, input from cones is emphasized, and contrast is further sharpened. [pg 565]
The "rest and digest" division of the ANS
The "fight or flight" division of the ANS
The parasympathetic fibers of what nerve accommodate close vision?
Oculomotor nerve III
Information from balance receptors go where?
*Brain Stem reflex centers
*indicates this information was not verified with the book/class notes
Why are sympathetic responses generally system wide?
longer-lasting, bodywide effects where Norepinephrine inactivated more slowly than ACh [Class Notes=C.N.]
What sympathetic fibers form a splanchnic nerve?
collateral ganglia [pg 531]
Where would you find cholinergic nicotinic receptors?
sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells [C.N.]
Conscious perception of vision is associated with which lobe?
Why can corneas be transplanted without tissue rejection?
it has no blood vessels [pg 549]
What are otoliths
"ear stones" jelly-like mass studded with tiny stones (calcium carbonate crystals) [pg 580]
What is the function of the reticular formation?
relays information to the preganglionic motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. [pg 538]
The parasympathetic ganglion which serves the eye is the ________
ciliary ganglion [pg 528]
sympathetic nerves can leave the spinal cord at what level?
L2 [pg 529]
What is autonomic dysreflexia?
life-threatening condition involving uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons [pg 539]
What is primary visual cortex?
conscious perception of visual images (seeing) occurs [pg563]
Action of the inferior oblique
elevates eye, turns laterally [pg 547]
What is striate cortex?
(primary visual cortex) provides form, color, and motion inputs to visual association areas collectively called the prostrate cortices. [pg 565]
What does the 10th cranial innervate?
innervates the visceral organs
the oval window is connected to which passageway?
scala vestiboli [C.N.]
The only special sense not fully functional at birth.
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division
Increases heart rate
during vigorous physical activity shunts blood to skeletal muscles and heart [C.N.]
Stimulation of sympathetic division causes _______________ .
increased blood glucose, increased heart rate and blood pressure
Function of rods in the eye
High sensitivity; function in dim light [pg 559]
What is olfaction and what does it involve?
:sense of smell
Humans can distinguish ~ 10,000 odors
~400 “smell” genes active only in nose
Pain and temperature receptors also in nasal cavities [C.N.]
move from bright light into darkness
Cones stop functioning in low-intensity light
Rhodopsin (pigment) accumulates in dark
Retinal sensitivity increases within 20-30 minutes
pupils dilate [C.N.]
In the retina, the axons of which neuron layer form the optic nerves?
retinal ganglion cells 
Visual processing in the thalamus contributes to what factors?
depth perception, input from cones and further contrast [pg 565]
have a light trapping outer segment
Every 24 hours, new components are synthesized in the cell body and added to the base of the outer segment. [pg559]
Where is the blind spot of the eye?
Where would you find autonomic ganglia?
(motor ganglia) smooth muscle, in gut, glands, cardiac muscle [pg 526]
Order that light passes through the eye
cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor, entire neural layer of retina, photoreceptors [C.N.]
Where is the bone pillar located in the center of the cochlea?
Modiolus [pg 573]
What is the ANS?
Autonomic Nervous System :involuntary nervous system
consists of motor neurons that innervate smooth and cardiac muscle, and glands
Erection of the penis or clitoris is the result of ____________ .
parasympathetic control of arterioles [pg 1026]
Control center of the body
hypothalamus [pg 441]
What are splanchnic nerves?
fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing from structures. [pg 531]
What is the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus?
maintain the fiber separation established at the chiasma, but they balance and combine the retinal input for delivery to the visual cortex. [pg563]
Where are the taste buds found?
located on the tongue
*a few are scattered on the soft palate, inner surface of the cheeks, pharynx, and epiglottis of the larynx, but most are found in papillae [pg 568]
What are gustatory receptors?
taste cells [pg 568]
number of sound waves passing a given point in a certain time, measured in Hertz (Hz)
distance between 2 consecutive rests of sound, the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency of sound
perception of different frequencies
richness or complexity of sound (music)
the loudness of sound, measured in decibels (dB)
Beta 1 Receptors
[table on 534]
*Found predominantly in the heart, but also kidneys and adipose tissue
*Increases heart rate and force of contraction; stimulates kidneys to release renin
What is malnutrition-induced blindness?
Trachoma [pg 590]
Parasympathetic outflow from the head involves what nerve?
Vagus Nerve X
Differences between somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic: activates skeletal muscles
autonomic: activates visceral (smooth, cardiac muscles or glands) [C.N.]
The secretions of the adrenal medulla are what effects?
(increase) prolonged fight or flight response: hypertension
[table on p 616]
Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye __________ .
cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma.
What is involved with equilibrium?
this sense depends on inputs from the internal ear and vision and information from stretch receptors of muscles and tendons. [p580]
Visible light fits between what wave lengths?
What is sound localization?
It requires input from both ears.
It uses time differences between sound reaching the two ears.
It is difficult to discriminate sound sources in the midline
What is suprachiasmatic nucleus?
the "timer" to set our daily biorhythms
The chemicals associated with sweet, umami, bitter, sour & salty
1. Sweet-sugars, saccharin, alcohol, some amino acids, some lead salts
2. Sour-hydrogen ions in solution
3. Salty-metal ion (inorganic salts NaCl)
4. Bitter-alkaloids (N) such as quinine and nicotine: aspirin
5. Umami-amino acids glutamate and aspartate
6. Taste for long chain fatty acids from eating fast foods
What are the receptor membranes of gustatory cells?
The tarsal plate is connected to what structure?
levator palpebrae superioris
What prevents the eyes from sticking together when closed?
What do autonomic ganglia contain?
the cell bodies of motor neurons
What are alkaloids?
organic compounds that include drugs such as morphine, quinine and poisons (atropine, strychnine)
What are ceruminous glands?
modified apocrine sweat glands [p 572]
What can a parasympathetic preganglionic axon do once it reaches a trunk ganglion?
The plexus of the Vagus Nerve
Causes of conduction deafness
compacted earwax blocking the external auditory meatus
perforated eardrum preventing sound conduction from the eardrum to the ossicles
middle ear inflammation (otitis media)
exaggerated vasoconstriction in fingers and toes becoming pale, then cyanotic and painful.
How do emotions influence autonomic reactions?
integration in the hypothalamus
As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.
outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
Some effects of parasympathetic tone
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Which structure cannot be seen with an ophthalmoscope?
The cells of the retina where action potentials are generated
What would damage to the medial rectus affect?
Effectors directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system
smooth, cardiac and most glands
Parts of the external ear
Auricle (pinna), Helix (rim), Lobule (earlobe), external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane
How do visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic?
has 2 neurons in its motor component
What stimulates olfactory cells and taste buds?
chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution
Characteristics of olfactory receptor cells
*short life span of ~60 days
What are optic vesicles?
the formation of eyes at the 4th week of development
The types of neurons replaced throughout adulthood
olfactory receptor cells
Drugs that attach to B2 receptors to dilate lung bronchioles in asthmatics
The cause of motion sickness
due to sensory input mismatches
When we see the color of an object, what is happening to the light?
all light is being absorbed by that object except for the color being experienced
What does the iris regulate?
regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye
Receptors for hearing are located where?
What is the macula?
"spots" sensory receptor organs that monitor the position of the head in space.
*inner ear disease
*affecting hearing and balance
*affects cochlea and semicircular canals
*causes vertigo, nausea, and vomiting
*Treatment: no cure, motion sickness meds (Antivert), anti-nausea meds (Prometrizine)
ortho "straight" stat "standing"
*low blood pressure after position change
*pressure receptors less responsive to blood pressure change
*cardiovascular centers fail to maintain healthy blood pressure
*not life threatening
*slow position changes gives sympathetic nervous system time to adjust