Biodiversity & Conservation Biology Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by kristincannon11
2,424 views
Subjects:
bio ii
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

Biological diversity can be measured at three levels:
A. trophic diversity, ecosystem diversity, and process diversity.
B. ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and process diversity.
C. species diversity, function diversity, and process diversity.
D. genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.
E. None of these choices are correct.

D. genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity.

2

Genetic diversity consists of
A. all the alleles and transcriptional elements within a species.
B. the amount of genetic variation that occurs within and between populations.
C. only the amount of genetic variation that occurs between populations.
D. only the amount of genetic variation that occurs between species.
E. the amount of genetic variation that occurs within and between species.

B. the amount of genetic variation that occurs within and between populations.

3

Endangered species
A. have become extinct.
B. are those species likely to become in danger of extinction in the future.
C. are only found in the tropics.
D. are only animals.
E. are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.

E. are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.

4

Threatened species
A. are rare species with unregulated hunting seasons.
B. are species likely to become endangered in the future.
C. are species likely to become endangered in the future and are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.
D. are confined to plants.
E. are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range and are confined to plants.

C. are species likely to become endangered in the future and are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.

5

Ecosystem diversity
A. defines the genetic diversity and morphology of an ecosystem.
B. is primarily concerned with aquatic ecosystems.
C. refers to the structure and function within an ecosystem.
D. includes genetic diversity and species diversity.
E. refers to the structure and function within an ecosystem and includes genetic diversity and species diversity.

C. refers to the structure and function within an ecosystem

6

The preservation of biological diversity can be justified based on
A. ecological value and economic value.
B. ecological value.
C. economic value.
D. ethical grounds.
E. ecological value, economic value, and ethical grounds.

E. ecological value, economic value, and ethical grounds.

7

The rivet hypothesis states
A. Each species plays a small but important role in the health of an ecosystem.
B. The more species present in an ecosystem, the more stable the community.
C. All species play an equal role in ecosystems.
D. Larger species play a more important role in ecosystems and in community stability.
E. The more species present in an ecosystem, the more stable the community and larger species play a more important role in ecosystems and in community stability

A. Each species plays a small but important role in the health of an ecosystem.

8

According to the rivet hypothesis:
A. Genetic diversity holds together an ecosystem.
B. Any species loss will have major consequences for ecosystem processes.
C. The loss of a few species from an ecosystem could probably be tolerated.
D. Ecosystems are resilient to extinctions.
E. None of these choices are correct.

C. The loss of a few species from an ecosystem could probably be tolerated

9

According to the redundancy hypothesis, species are redundant if
A. they could be eliminated or replaced by others with no loss of function and we have named them wrongly.
B. there is an excess of species.
C. we have named them wrongly.
D. only one species is necessary at each trophic level.
E. they could be eliminated or replaced by others with no loss of function.

E. they could be eliminated or replaced by others with no loss of function.

10

The idiosyncratic hypothesis suggests that:
A. Ecosystem function changes unpredictably as the number of species increases or decreases.
B. Ecosystem function decreases as the number of species decreases.
C. Ecosystem function varies predictably with the number of species.
D. Ecosystem function is independent of the number of species.
E. Ecosystem function changes as the number of species increases or decreases and ecosystem function decreases as the number of species decreases.

A. Ecosystem function changes unpredictably as the number of species increases or decreases.

11

In a series of field experiments, David Tilman and colleagues tried to determine how much biodiversity was necessary for proper ecosystem function. They found a relationship between
A. the number of plant and the number of animals.
B. ecosystems and allelic diversity.
C. species and genetic diversity.
D. diversity and ecosystem function.
E. species and parental generations

D. diversity and ecosystem function.

12

In the Ecotron experiments of Shahid Naeem comparing species diversity and ecosystem function, it was found that a larger ground cover also meant
A. higher nutrient uptake by animals in the system.
B. a larger plant biomass and greater community productivity.
C. more individual plants from fewer plant species.
D. ecosystem function depends only available light intensity.
E. genetic, species, and ecosystem attributes are tightly linked.

B. a larger plant biomass and greater community productivity.

13

The main causes of species extinction include all of the following EXCEPT
A. direct exploitation.
B. introduced species.
C. introgression.
D. habitat destruction.
E. climate change.

C. introgression.

14

Introduced species become invasive when they
A. outcompete native species for space and resources.
B. go from temperate to tropical settings.
C. define new habitats.
D. lead to a cost to humans.
E. go from temperate to tropical settings and are carried to new habitats.

A. outcompete native species for space and resources.

15

The probable extinction of the ivory-billed woodpecker is an example of which cause of extinction?
A. direct exploitation
B. introduced species
C. habitat destruction
D. climate change
E. introduced species and habitat destruction

C. habitat destruction

16

The biodiversity crisis refers to
A. an area in the Caribbean where extinction is very common.
B. the global elevated loss of species over the last several hundred years.
C. extinctions due to climate change.
D. the downward spiral toward extinction from which a species cannot recover.
E. None of these choices are correct.

B. the global elevated loss of species over the last several hundred years.

17

Inbreeding and small population size of a threatened species can combine to form a downward spiral for the species known as a(n)
A. extinction vortex.
B. random change of allele frequencies attributable to chance.
C. random mutation.
D. accelerated evolution of new traits.
E. None of the possibilities are correct.

A. extinction vortex.

18

The decline in the reproduction and survival of individuals in small populations is known as the
A. extinction vortex.
B. Wilson effect.
C. effective population size.
D. Allee effect.
E. None of these choices are correct

D. Allee effect.

19

A large effective population size is important so that a species
A. can maintain an adequate range.
B. does not change its trophic relationship.
C. will not lose large amounts of genetic diversity in the near future.
D. can minimize edge effects.
E. can remain endemic to a small area.

C. will not lose large amounts of genetic diversity in the near future.

20

Megadiversity countries are those countries which
A. spend the most money on conservation.
B. have the greatest number of species.
C. contain the most unique species.
D. contain the largest number of plant and insect species.
E. spend the most money on conservation, have the greatest number of species, and contain the most unique species.

B. have the greatest number of species.

21

Geographic biodiversity "hot spots" are those areas with
A. the widest variety of plant species in three or more ecosystems.
B. the greatest number of species in the greatest area of land or water.
C. the greatest land mass.
D. at least 1500 endemic plant species and that have lost at least 70% of the original habitat.
E. the greatest number of species and cycles.

D. at least 1500 endemic plant species and that have lost at least 70% of the original habitat.

22

An endemic species is one that
A. has been cultivated by humans.
B. functions as a keystone species.
C. is found in only one particular place or region.
D. can be used as an indicator species.
E. None of these choices are correct.

C. is found in only one particular place or region.

23

Which of these is NOT a focus of habitat conservation?
A. identifying representative habitats
B. identifying countries rich in species
C. identifying areas rich in endemics
D. identifying areas of rich farm land
E. identifying areas rich in endemics and identifying representative habitats

D. identifying areas of rich farm land

24

. ____________Ecology examines the spatial arrangement of elements in communities and ecosystems.
A. Landscape
B. Community
C. Population
D. Macro
E. Global

A. Landscape

25

What shape park is preferable for minimizing edge effects?
A. square
B. circular
C. linear
D. separate
E. ribbon

B. circular

26

Species whose status provides information on the overall health of an ecosystem are called
A. umbrella species.
B. keystone species.
C. endemic species.
D. flagship species.
E. indicator species.

E. indicator species.

27

Species whose habitat requirements are so large that protecting them would mean protecting many other species in the same habitat are called
A. indicator species.
B. keystone species.
C. endemic species.
D. flagship species.
E. umbrella species.

E. umbrella species.

28

The Florida panther, a symbol of Florida's conservation campaign, may be called a
A. indicator species.
B. flagship species.
C. endemic species.
D. keystone species.
E. umbrella species.

B. flagship species.

29

Species within a community that have a role out of proportion with their abundance are called
A. indicator species.
B. SLOSS species.
C. keystone species.
D. dominant species.
E. umbrella species

C. keystone species.

30

Species that create, modify and maintain habitat are known as
A. indicator species.
B. keystone species.
C. dominant species.
D. SLOSS builders.
E. ecosystem engineers.

E. ecosystem engineers.

31

_________ is the use of living organisms to detoxify polluted habitats such as oil spills.
A. Restoration
B. Rehabilitation
C. Bioremediation
D. Replacement
E. None of these choices are correct.

C. Bioremediation

32

The propagation of animals and plants outside their natural habitat is called
A. captive breeding.
B. bioremediation.
C. unnatural reproduction.
D. natural restoration.
E. captive breeding and natural restoration.

A. captive breeding.

33

Cloning endangered species
A. is expensive.
B. is rarely practical.
C. needs surrogate mothers.
D. does not address the root cause of species loss.
E. All of these choices are correct.

E. All of these choices are correct.

34

In an effort to protect and breed the California Condor, a rescue program
A. captured the few remaining wild birds.
B. was able to clone several female birds in captivity.
C. captured and relocated the remaining wild birds to a zoo in New York.
D. developed new genetic engineering techniques.
E. was able to restore habitat in much of southern California.

A. captured the few remaining wild birds.

35

One of the leading causes of the extinction of species in the United States has been
A. climate change.
B. inbreeding.
C. deforestation.
D. invasive species.
E. soil erosion.

C. deforestation.

36

Which of these is the best example of an umbrella species?
A. northern spotted owls.
B. velvet mites.
C. humpback whales.
D. giant pandas.
E. None of these choices are correct.

A. northern spotted owls.

37

The range of the grizzly bear in the 48 contiguous United States is now less than 1% of what it was in 1800. What has been proposed to help maintain genetic variation in the remaining populations of this species?
A. protected corridors between all of the remaining populations
B. regular exchange of bears between isolated populations
C. one hundred small square patches of forest
D. reproductive cloning of the largest remaining females
E. establishment of new parks in Colorado and New Mexico

B. regular exchange of bears between isolated populations

38

Spotted owls are keystone species.

False

39

More spending has led to greater recovery of black rhinoceros numbers.

True

40

The United States contains at least one biodiversity hot spot.

True

41

The passenger pigeon went extinct due to natural causes.

False

42

The number of extinctions of birds and mammals has gone up as human populations have increased.

True

43

The introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii was responsible for the extinction of almost half of Hawaii's native birds.

True

44

<p>SLOSS stands for single large or several small.</p> <!--EndFragment-->

True

45

Beavers are an example of a dominant species.

False

46

Captive breeding could potentially save all rare species.

False

47

Field experiments by David Tilman showed that increased plant diversity reduced the severity of attack by foliar fungal diseases.

True

48

A smaller percentage of bird than fish species are endangered.

True

49

One reason for conserving species is on ethical grounds.

True

50

Both rare and common insect species may have economic value.

True