AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND BIOMES

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1

What is allowing new diseases that are driving the Panamanian golden frog (Atelopus sp.) to extinction?
A. deforestation
B. new predators
C. climate change
D. introduced species
E. All of the choices are correct

C. climate change

2

The Panamanian golden frog is in decline from what specific threat?
A. a virus
B. a fungus
C. an introduced competitor
D. a new road
E. overharvesting

B. a fungus

3

Ecology
A. requires the study of plants.
B. is the study of the environment.
C. primarily studies animals.
D. works for the good of the environment.
E. includes the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

E. includes the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.

4

Abiotic interactions are
A. between organisms.
B. between organisms and the environment.
C. usually mutually costly.
D. most important in tropical ecosystems.
E. rare.

B. between organisms and the environment.

5

Populations are best defined as
A. all members of a species.
B. all organisms found in an environment.
C. metacommunities.
D. families.
E. groups of interbreeding populations.

E. groups of interbreeding populations.

6

The study of species interactions includes
A. predation.
B. parasitism.
C. competition.
D. all of the choices.

D. all of the choices.

7

Patterns of species change and succession are one focus of
A. behavioral ecology.
B. environmental science.
C. biological control.
D. community ecology.
E. physiological ecology.

D. community ecology.

8

Invasive Eurasian grass species can outcompete native North American grasses through
A. secretion of allelochemicals.
B. producing more viable seeds.
C. producing seeds year-round.
D. avoiding grazing animals.
E. faster seed germination.

A. secretion of allelochemicals.

9

What is replication in scientific inquiry?
A. Asking several different hypotheses at once.
B. Testing both biotic and abiotic factors.
C. Finding different species for experiments.
D. Performing experiments several times.
E. Having a well defined time frame for experiments.

D. Performing experiments several times.

10

Temperature is perhaps the most important factor in the distribution of organisms because
A. water is scarcer in warmer environments.
B. most organisms are unable to regulate their body temperature precisely.
C. many organisms are able to grow faster in warmer climates.
D. the metabolic optimum for endothermic animals is in temperate areas.
E. wind amplifies the effect of cool temperatures.

B. most organisms are unable to regulate their body temperature precisely.

11

How do corals react when water temperatures are too high?
A. They leave the shelter of the reef.
B. Corals release water at higher temperatures.
C. Symbiotic algae living within corals are expelled.
D. The metabolic optimum can adapt.
E. Corals are more pigmented at higher temperatures.

C. Symbiotic algae living within corals are expelled.

12

The northern boundary of the distribution of Saguaro cacti is defined by
A. areas in which temperatures do not drop below freezing.
B. the availability of water year round.
C. the presence of pollinating insects.
D. proximity to coastal environments.
E. the frequency of low-intensity fires.

A. areas in which temperatures do not drop below freezing.

13

The serotinous cones of the longleaf pine, Pinus palustris, depend on _____ to release their seeds.
A. daylight
B. extended freezes
C. sustained rainfall
D. fire
E. animals

D. fire

14

What naturally occurring process is responsible for keeping the earth warm enough to sustain life?
A. Oceanic currents
B. Increasing biodiversity
C. Greenhouse effect
D. Variable microclimates
E. Atmospheric circulation

C. Greenhouse effect

15

The Earth's surface releases __________ that is absorbed by the atmosphere, stabilizing or raising atmospheric temperature.
A. fire
B. ultraviolet radiation
C. near-ultraviolet radiation
D. activation energy
E. long-wave infrared radiation

E. long-wave infrared radiation

16

Which of the following is a greenhouse gas?
A. water vapor
B. molecular oxygen
C. molecular nitrogen
D. argon
E. carbon monoxide

A. water vapor

17

Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. What is its current concentration?
A. 1.5 ppm
B. 1.75 ppm
C. 385 ppm
D. 560 ppm
E. 700 ppm

C. 385 ppm

18

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported in 2007 that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will nearly double by the end of this century. If this happens, what will be the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide?
A. 1.5 ppm
B. 1.75 ppm
C. 385 ppm
D. 560 ppm
E. 700 ppm

E. 700 ppm

19

Which of the following are atmospheric greenhouse gases?
A. methane
B. carbon dioxide
C. nitrous oxide
D. chlorofluorocarbons
E. all of the choices

E. all of the choices

20

What is a major consequence for plants and animals if current predictions of global warming are accurate?
A. Rates of natural selection will increase at the same pace.
B. New continental land masses will appear.
C. Water will be more widely available for plants and animals.
D. Anticipated changes in climate will occur faster than many organisms can move or adapt.
E. Many plants and animals will become smaller.

D. Anticipated changes in climate will occur faster than many organisms can move or adapt.

21

The tree line in alpine areas is often determined by a combination of
A. wind and water.
B. water and soil type.
C. salts in the soil.
D. low temperatures and high winds.
E. high temperatures and high winds.

D. low temperatures and high winds.

22

A common adaptation of coastal plants that grow on sand dunes is
A. deep roots to extract moisture.
B. broad leaves for enhanced photosynthesis.
C. secretion of proteinaceous threads.
D. increased transpiration of water.
E. elevated growth rates.

A. deep roots to extract moisture.

23

The photic zone in aquatic environments is typically about how deep?
A. 10 m
B. 50 m
C. 100 m
D. 500 m
E. 1000 m

C. 100 m

24

Why are red algae found in deeper oceanic waters?
A. They possess pigments that allow them to utilize red light.
B. They are able to utilize the more saline deep water.
C. Red algae prefer the warmer deep water.
D. They possess pigments that allow them utilize blue-green-light.
E. Fewer algae predators are found in deeper water.

B. They are able to utilize the more saline deep water.

25

In arid terrestrial environments, salt can accumulate in the soil because of
A. the selective uptake of water by plants.
B. the activities of grazing animals.
C. the precipitation of salt from dry air.
D. the secretion of salt by plants.
E. the settlement and evaporation of water.

E. the settlement and evaporation of water.

26

Freshwater fishes are hypoosmotic.

FALSE

27

The optimal pH range for most freshwater fishes and invertebrates is
A. 2 - 6
B. 2 - 4
C. 4 - 6
D. 6 - 9
E. 8 - 11

D. 6 - 9

28

The distribution of biomes is primarily determined by weather/wind cycles due to latitudinal gradients in
A. temperature.
B. elevation.
C. rivers.
D. biodiversity.
E. rainfall.

A. temperature.

29

The sea heats and cools
A. more quickly than the land.
B. more slowly than the land.
C. at the same rate as the land.
D. three times a day.
E. more quickly than the land and more slowly than the land.

B. more slowly than the land.

30

Our understanding of what drives atmospheric circulation and precipitation is based on

A. cooling of the land.
B. rising masses of warm air, and sinking masses of cool air.
C. CO2 production by trees.
D. sea surface temperature.
E. winds blowing off of the world's major mountain chains.

B. rising masses of warm air, and sinking masses of cool air.

31

The deflection by the earth's rotation of atmospheric flow to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere, is known as the
A. Hadley effect.
B. Gulf Stream.
C. Coriolis effect.
D. intertropical convergence zone.
E. solar radiation effect.

C. Coriolis effect.

32

What is adiabatic cooling?
A. The effect of rainfall on windward side of a mountain.
B. The influence of polar air masses on tropical mountains.
C. Increasing elevation leads to a decrease in air pressure and cooler air.
D. The influence of sinking cooler air in a Hadley cell.
E. The enhanced cooling caused by cloud cover at higher elevations.

C. Increasing elevation leads to a decrease in air pressure and cooler air.

33

Ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere such as the Gulf Stream run in what direction?
A. counterclockwise
B. clockwise
C. north to south
D. south to north
E. always from the tropics to the pole

B. clockwise

34

Most of Europe is in the ______ biome.
A. high mountain
B. taiga
C. temperate deciduous forest
D. tundra
E. None of the choices are correct

C. temperate deciduous forest

35

Chaparral is
A. a type of shrubland/grassland.
B. a type of forest.
C. restricted to serpentine soils.
D. widespread in Africa.
E. distinguished by tall trees.

A. a type of shrubland/grassland.

36

The Hadley effect is
A. why water in a toilet bowl spins counter clockwise.
B. an explanation for climate patterns that links solar radiation and the spin of the Earth.
C. one of the reasons for the extinction of the Panamanian golden frog.
D. why water in a toilet bowl spins counter clockwise and an explanation for climate patterns that links solar radiation and the spin of the Earth.
E. Only important in southern hemisphere forests on the western sides of mountains.

B. an explanation for climate patterns that links solar radiation and the spin of the Earth.

37

Tropical forests are known for
A. their high diversity relative to other forests.
B. their abundance of large mammals relative to other forests.
C. high temperatures relative to other forests.
D. their high diversity relative to other forests and high temperatures relative to other forests.
E. their high diversity relative to other forests, their abundance of large mammals relative to other forests, and high temperatures relative to other forests.

D. their high diversity relative to other forests and high temperatures relative to other forests.

38

Exotic species are
A. from the tropics.
B. species moved by humans from a native location to another location.
C. species moved by natural forces from a native location to a new location.
D. from the tropics and species moved by humans from a native location to another location.
E. from the tropics, species moved by humans from a native location to another location, and species moved by natural forces from a native location to a new location.

B. species moved by humans from a native location to another location.

39

All rain forests are tropical.

FALSE

40

The same biome cannot occur on more than one continent.

FALSE

41

Only temperature can limit a species' fundamental niche.

FALSE

42

Microclimate is a term used to describe local variation in climatic conditions.

TRUE

43

The range of the sugar maple could decrease in response to warming due to climate change.

TRUE

44

Saltwater fishes are hypoosmotic.

TRUE

45

The number of aquatic species increases in acidic waters.

FALSE

46

Temperature tends to decline with longitude.

FALSE

47

Rain shadows are found on the windward sides of mountains.

FALSE

48

Land next to the sea has more variable climate than land farther from the sea

FALSE

49

Lakes with elevated dissolved nutrients and low water clarity are called ______.

C. eutrophic

50

Which of the following is a characteristic of tundra?
A. temperate climate
B. permafrost
C. more than 100 cm of rain a year
D. deciduous forests
E. high biodiversity

B. permafrost