HESI A2- Anatomy & Physiology Practice Test

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1

What mineral is responsible for muscle contractions?

A. Chloride

B. Sodium

C. Calcium

D. Magnesium

C.

2

In which of the following locations would the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs be found?

A. Thoracic cavity

B. Mediastinum

C. Abdominal cavity

D. Pelvic cavity

D.

3

What separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

A. Diaphragm

B. Mediastinum

C. Liver

D. Lungs

A.

4

Which of the following epithelial types is correctly matched with its major function?

A. Simple squamous epithelium—secretion or absorption

B. Stratified squamous epithelium—changes shape when stretched

C. Stratified squamous epithelium—diffusion

D. Simple columnar epithelium—secretion or absorption

D.

5

A tissue examined under the microscope exhibits the following characteristics: cells found on internal surface of stomach, no extracellular matrix, cells tall and thin, no blood vessels in the tissue. What type of tissue is this?

A. Epithelial

B. Connective

C. Muscle

D. Cartilage

E. Nervous

A.

6

Nerve tissue is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as which of the following?

A. Osteoblasts

B. Neuroglia

C. Osteocytes

D. Arterioles

B.

7

Which tissue serves as the framework of the body by providing support and structure for the organs?

A. Epithelial

B. Connective

C. Nervous

D. Muscle

B.

8

What is the basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs?

A. Atom

B. Organelle

C. Cell

D. DNA

C.

9

Which type of cell division takes place in the gonads?

A. Mitosis

B. Meiosis

C. Binary fission

D. Asexual division

B.

10

In what area of the body would you expect to find an especially thick stratum corneum?

A. Back of the hand

B. Heel of the foot

C. Abdomen

D. Over the shin

B.

11

What are the glands of skin that produce a thin, watery secretion?

A. Sebaceous glands

B. Eccrine glands

C. Apocrine glands

D. Endocrine glands

B.

12

Skin aids in maintaining the calcium and phosphate levels of the body by participating in the production of which of the following?

A. Sebum

B. Keratin

C. Vitamin A

D. Vitamin D

D.

13

Which of the following are functions of the skeletal system? (Select all that apply.)

A. Support the body

B. Hemopoiesis

C. Conduct impulses

D. Provide protection

  • A.
  • B.
  • D.
14

The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the middle region of the humerus. What is he describing?

A. Epiphysis

B. Articular cartilage

C. Perichondrium

D. Diaphysis

D.

15

You have been given a sample of tissue that has open spaces partially filled by an assemblage of needlelike structures. What is the tissue?

A. Spongy bone

B. Compact bone

C. Cartilage

D. Adipose tissue

A.

16

Which of the following bones is the only moveable bone of the skull?

A. Maxilla

B. Zygomatic

C. Lacrimal

D. Mandible

D.

17

Which mineral is responsible for regulating fluid in the body?

A. Chloride

B. Sodium

C. Calcium

D. Magnesium

B.

18

Why are skeletal muscles also called voluntary muscles?

A. They are under conscious control.

B. They are attached to the skeleton.

C. They use ATP to energize contraction.

D. They are striated in appearance.

A.

19

19. All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over which of the following?

A. Neuroglia

B. Efferent pathways

C. Afferent pathways

D. Neurons

D.

20

Motor or ____________ neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS.

A. Afferent

B. Efferent

C. Central

D. Peripheral

B.

21

Jeffery has contracted bulbar poliomyelitis, and it has affected the medulla oblongata. The doctors warned the family that his condition is grave and death may be imminent. What functions of the medulla oblongata have warranted such a dire prognosis?

A. The medulla oblongata contains vital centers that control heart action, blood vessel diameter, and respiration.

B. The medulla oblongata contains neural connections of the reticular-activating system.

C. The medulla oblongata contains the pineal gland, which controls the vital centers.

D. The medulla oblongata contains the corpora quadrigemina, which controls the neural transmission of impulses along the spinal cord.

A.

22

What are chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation, and the metabolism of specific target cells called?

A. Hormones

B. Neurons

C. Glands

D. Second messengers

A.

23

Which of the following are tropic hormones? (Select all that apply.)

A. Somatotropin

B. Follicle-stimulating hormone

C. Antidiuretic hormone

D. Thyroid-stimulating hormone

  • A.
  • B.
  • D.
24

Which leukocytes are correctly matched with their function or description? (Select all that apply.)

A. Monocytes—become macrophages

B. Basophils—the most common type of WBC

C. Lymphocytes—important in immune response

D. Neutrophils—phagocytize microorganisms

  • A.
  • C.
  • D.
25

The heart has an intrinsic beat that is initiated by which of the following?

A. Semilunar valve

B. Bicuspid valve

C. Tricuspid valve

D. Sinoatrial node

D.

26

Vasodilation and vasoconstriction result from which of the following?

A. Contraction of smooth muscle in the arterial wall

B. Relaxation of smooth muscle in the arterial wall

C. Relaxation and contraction of smooth muscle in the arterial wall

D. Contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle in the venous wall

C.

27

Which of the following is the blood vessel where exchanges take place between blood and the cells of the body?

A. Artery

B. Vein

C. Capillary

D. Arteriole

C.

28

What is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli called?

A. External respiration

B. Internal respiration

C. Inhalation

D. Cellular respiration

A.

29

In order for inhalation to occur, what must happen?

A. Contraction of the diaphragm, which decreases the volume of the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs

B. Contraction of the diaphragm, which enlarges the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs

C. Recoil of the lungs as the respiratory muscles contract, and the thorax decreases in size

D. Recoil of the lungs as the respiratory muscles relax, and the thorax decreases in size

B.

30

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood does which of the following?

A. It is carried in solution or bound to blood proteins.

B. It is carried on hemoglobin.

C. It is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within red blood cells.

D. It is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within the plasma.

C.

31

How does the trachea remain open like a hollow tube?

A. Air pressure inside keeps it open.

B. Supporting cartilaginous rings keep it open.

C. It is reinforced with bone that cannot collapse.

D. Special muscles are working to keep the trachea open.

B.

32

The stomach muscle churns and mixes food, turning the mass into a soupy substance called which of the following?

A. Bolus

B. Bile

C. Chyme

D. Feces

C.

33

What is the function of aldosterone?

A. It converts proinsulin to insulin.

B. It conserves sodium in the body.

C. It protects against stress.

D. It affects heat production.

B.

34

All the nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination?

A. Kidney

B. Pancreas

C. Spleen

D. Liver

D.

35

Which are the functional units of the kidney?

A. Ureters

B. Glomeruli

C. Nephrons

D. Renal capsules

C.

36

What are the two functions of the male and female sex organs?

A. Production of all cells and production of hormones

B. Production of interstitial cells and production of hormones

C. Production of gametes and production of hormones

D. Production of gametes and production of interstitial cells

C.

37

In men, spermatozoa develop within the ____________ of each testis.

A. Seminiferous tubules

B. Vas deferens

C. Ejaculatory ducts

D. Bulbourethral glands

A.

38

Testicular activity is under the control of which hormone(s)?

A. FSH

B. LH

C. GH

D. Both FSH and LH

D.

39

Which hormone initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy?

A. FSH

B. Estrogen

C. LH

D. Progesterone

B.

40

During pregnancy, what organ produces the hormones that maintain the endometrium and prepare the breasts for milk production?

A. Placenta

B. Uterus

C. Cervix

D. Corpus luteum

A.