In the hierarchic system of classification, which of the following is the least inclusive?
After observing an event, you develop an explanation. This statement is referred to as which of the following?
A molecule of water is bonded with another molecule of water by what type of bond?
Which of the following is a benefit of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding of water? (Select all that apply.)
A. Water has a relatively high specific heat value.
B. Water has strong cohesive and adhesive properties.
C. Polarity of water allows it to act as a versatile solvent.
D. Water moves from higher to lower concentrations.
Of all the molecules that are significant to biology, which of the following are considered the most important?
A. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids
B. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and calcium
C. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and sulfur
D. Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and iron
Lipids are better known as fats, but what are they specifically? (Select all that apply.)
A. Fatty acids
What are the two categories of fatty acids?
A. Trans fat and saturated fats
B. Trans fat and unsaturated fats
C. Saturated fats and unsaturated fats
D. Saturated fats and polyunsaturated fats
What is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism?
In a cell, reactions take place in a series of steps called:
A. Metabolic pathways
B. Chemical bonding
What is the fundamental unit of biology?
Which type of cell contains no defined nucleus?
A. Prokaryotic cell
B. Eukaryotic cell
C. Animal cell
D. Protest cell
What is the primary purpose of the flagella on the surface of cells?
A. Movement of the cell
B. Removal of cellular waste
C. Replication of chromosomes
D. Production of energy
Which cell organelle functions to transport materials from the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cell?
B. Golgi apparatus
Which of the following are the distinct organelles that produce cell energy?
A. Mitochondrion and chloroplast
B. Mitochondrion and nucleus
C. Chloroplast and nucleus
D. Chloroplast and lysosome
Which component of the cell contributes to the protection, communication, and passage of substances into and out of the cell?
B. Cell membrane
C. Endoplasmic reticulum
How do phospholipids function in cells?
A. They are integral components of the nuclear membrane.
B. They are integral components of the cytoplasmic skeleton.
C. They are integral components of the mitochondrial membranes.
D. They are integral components of the plasma membrane.
Which of the biologic molecules are considered the most significant contributor to cellular function?
D. Nucleic acids
Proteins are polymers of which of the following?
B. Amino acids
C. Fatty acids
Which of the following proteins catalyze different reactions or processes?
Which of the biologic molecules are components of the molecules of inheritance?
D. Nucleic acids
The cell membrane consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins. This bilayer creates a hydrophobic region between two layers of lipids, making it which of the following?
C. Selectively permeable
D. Selectively impermeable
What are the two catabolic pathways that lead to cellular energy production?
A. Fermentation and internal respiration
B. Fermentation and external respiration
C. Fermentation and cellular respiration
D. Fermentation and anaerobic respiration
What is the first step in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate?
B. Krebs cycle
C. Electron transport chain
D. Aerobic respiration
Which step in cellular respiration yields the greatest amount of ATP?
B. Krebs cycle
C. Electron transport chain
During cell respiration, the conversion of glucose results in an overall production of how many ATP molecules?
What is the function of water in photosynthesis?
A. Combine with carbon dioxide
B. Absorb light energy
C. Supply electrons in the light reactions
D. Transport hydrogen ions in the dark reactions
Cells reproduce by different processes, all of which fall into what two categories?
A. Sexual reproduction and binary fission
B. Sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction
C. Asexual reproduction and binary fission
D. Asexual reproduction and mitosis
Which of the following describes how a bacterium reproduces?
C. Binary fission
Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants:
A. The spindles contain cellulose microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.
B. Sister chromatids are identical, whereas in animals they differ from one another.
C. A cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.
D. Chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.
During which phase of cell reproduction does the cell divide forming two separate identical cells?
How does meiosis differ from mitosis?
A. In meiosis, each of the daughter cells contains twice as many chromosomes as the parent.
B. In meiosis, each of the daughter cells contains half as many chromosomes as the parent.
C. In meiosis, each of the daughter cells is completely identical to the parent.
D. Meiotic division occurs in all body cells, whereas in mitosis the cells only divide in the gonads.
At which phase of meiosis does crossing over occur?
A. Prophase I
B. Prophase II
C. Metaphase I
D. Metaphase II
A cell division occurs in a human. The resulting cells contain 23 chromosomes. This is a description of gametes formed by which process?
B. Binary fission
If you wanted to determine the probability of a genotype, which of the following would you use?
C. Punnett square
D. Genotype map
Which of the following terms is used to describe the appearance of the organism?
What is the probability that a recessive trait would be expressed in offspring if two parents who are both heterozygous for the desired trait were crossed?
Because genetics is the study of heredity, many human disorders can be determined by studying a person's chromosomes or by creating which of the following?
A. Punnett square
C. Chromosome model
D. Genetic map
Why is DNA important for metabolic activities of the cell?
A. It initiates cellular mitosis.
B. It provides cell wall stability.
C. It increases glucose absorption.
D. It controls the synthesis of enzymes.
During protein synthesis, what process uses an RNA strand to produce a complementary strand of DNA?
C. Transfer synthesis
D. Codon synthesis
During the process of transcription, a sequence of RNA is generated in which the RNA base cytosine (C) is inserted complementary to the DNA base guanine (G). Which RNA base is inserted complementary to the DNA base thymine (T)?