Chapter 18 & 20 Flashcards
- A ( SA Node )
- B ( AV Node )
- C ( AV Bundle )
- D ( Bundle branches )
- E ( Purkinje fibers )
- A ( Atrial Depolarization )
- B ( Point after which pressure begins to rise in the aorta )
- E ( Ventricular depolarization, & point that represents the "dup" sound )
- A ( Normal sinus rhythm )
- B ( Junctional rhythm )
- C ( Second degree heart block )
- D ( Ventricular fibrillation )
The inner lining of the heart
Serous layer covering the heart muscle
The outermost layer of the serous pericardium
The pacemaker of the heart
Found in the interventricular septum
Network found in the ventricular myocardium
The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed
Prevents backflow into the left ventricle
Prevents backflow into the right atrium
Prevents backflow into the left atrium
Prevents backflow into the right ventricle
AV valve with two flaps
AV valve with three flaps
- A ( Right atrium )
- B ( Tricuspid valve )
- C ( Pulmonary veins )
- D ( Mitral valve )
- E ( Left ventricle )
Heart muscle is deprived of oxygen
Death of heart muscle cells
A condition of rapid and irregular or out-of-phase contraction of heart muscle cells
An abnormal pacemaker
Total heart relaxation
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?
Closure of the heart valves
What does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?
Ventricles are in diastole
Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes?
lowering of BP due to change in cardiac output
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ____
Pump blood with greater pressure
Damage to the _______ is referred to as heart block
The p wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates _______
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the _______
The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is _______
To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the _______
2nd intercostal space to the right of the sternum
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the _______
The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it _______
Pumps blood against a greater resistance
What is not an age related change affecting the heart?
Thinning of the valve flaps
What does not influence heart rate?
If cardiac muscle is deprived of it's normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ______
Decreased delivery of oxygen
If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________
Tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action
Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ______
Causing threshold to be reached more quickly
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ______
The heart rate would increase by about 25 bpm
Foramen ovale _____
Connects the two atria in the fetal heart
Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole
Both the aorta and pulmonary trunk
What is not part of the conduction system of the heart?
The tricuspid valve is closed _______
When the ventricle is in systole
When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by _________
Noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
What is true about heart valves
The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all
What is true about the structure of the heart wall
The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts
Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ______
Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium
During the period of ventricular filling ______
Blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles
The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
The time of the day most hazardous for heart attacks is _____
If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid ______
Threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase
What is true about cardiac output?
A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction
What happens during contraction of heart muscle cells
Some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores
Isovolumetric contraction ______
Refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
Commotio cordis is heart failure due to a _______
Relatively mild blow to the chest that occurs during a vulnerable interval ( 2ms) when the heart is repolarizing
The enlarged coronary vessel outside the heart that empties blood into the right atrium is the _______
What structure in the fetal heart allows blood to flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium?
The ECG T wave interval represents _______
CO = _________ x SV
The ______ membrane covers the heart
Visceral layer of the serous pericardium
The _______ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae
The _______ and _______ valves of the heart have no chordae tendineae attached
Aortic and Pulmonary
Contraction of the muscle
Relaxation of the muscle
- (B) Axillary nodes
- (D) Cisterna chyli
- (A) Entrance of thoracic duct into subclavian veins
- (C) Thoracic duct
- (E) Lymphatic collecting vessels
- (E) Efferent vessels
- (C) Cortex
- (D) Medullary Cord
- (A) Trabecula
- (B) Medulla
Protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels
Stores blood platelets
Receives lymph from most of the body
Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
Largest lymphatic organ
Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________
What is not classified as a lymphatic structure?
What is not true about the thymus?
It has follicles similar to those in the spleen
What is not involved in lymph transport?
Smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls
The thymus is most active during ________
Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
Right lymphatic duct
What is not part of the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic capillaries are ________
More permeable than blood capillaries
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by _______
Lymph leaves a lymph node via _________
Efferent lymphatic vessels
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
What is not a function of the spleen?
Forming crypts that trap bacteria
When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is _______
Severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb
What is true of lymph transport?
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
What is true about lymphocytes
B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood
What is true about lymphoid tissue
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a _____
What does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
Peyer's patches are found in the _________
Ileum of the small intestine
Lymph capillaries are absent except __________
What is bubo?
An infected lymph node
The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not ________
Directly fight antigens
Where do large clusters of lymph nodes not occur?
Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue is not included in _______
Islets of Langerhans
What is not a method that maintains lymph flow?
Capillary smooth muscle contraction
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________
What is not a normal component of lymph?
Red blood cells
A sentinel node is ________
The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
What are functions of lymphoid tissue?
- House and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
- Furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
What is not a function of the lymphatic system
Transporting respiratory gases
What is not a function of the lymph nodes
Produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid
The _______ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx.
The appendix, tonsils, and peyer's patches are examples of ________
Highly speacialized lymph capillaries called ____ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.
Splenic _____ pulp is primarily concerned with immune functions of the spleen
Tonsils have blind-ended structures called _______
Thymic corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored _______ regions of the thymus
The ______ pulp of the spleen forms cuff's around the central arteries.
Lymphatic _____ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels
Right Lymphatic Duct Drains ________
Right upper arm and right side of head and thorax
Thoracic Duct ____________
Drains rest of body
T cells mature in _____
B cells mature in _______
Bones. Formed in bone marrow
What do lymph nodes do?
- macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris.
- lymphocytes activated and mount attack against antigens
Name the tonsils and where they are located.....
- Palatine tonsils- posterior end of oral cavity
- Lingual tonsil - at base of tongue
- Pharyngeal tonsil - posterior wall of nasopharynx
- Tubal tonsils - surround openings of auditory tubes into pharynx