Chapter 18 & 20 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by sjp051113
937 views
updated 8 years ago by sjp051113
Subjects:
a&p ii
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1
card image
  • A ( SA Node )
  • B ( AV Node )
  • C ( AV Bundle )
  • D ( Bundle branches )
  • E ( Purkinje fibers )

...

2
card image
  • A ( Atrial Depolarization )
  • B ( Point after which pressure begins to rise in the aorta )
  • E ( Ventricular depolarization, & point that represents the "dup" sound )

...

3
card image
  • A ( Normal sinus rhythm )
  • B ( Junctional rhythm )
  • C ( Second degree heart block )
  • D ( Ventricular fibrillation )

...

4

The inner lining of the heart

Endocardium

5

Heart muscle

Myocardium

6

Serous layer covering the heart muscle

Epicardium

7

The outermost layer of the serous pericardium

Parietal layer

8

The pacemaker of the heart

SA Node

9

Found in the interventricular septum

AV Bundle

10

Network found in the ventricular myocardium

Purkinje fibers

11

The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed

AV Node

12

Prevents backflow into the left ventricle

Aortic valve

13

Prevents backflow into the right atrium

Tricuspid valve

14

Prevents backflow into the left atrium

Mitral valve

15

Prevents backflow into the right ventricle

Pulmonary valves

16

AV valve with two flaps

Mitral valve

17

AV valve with three flaps

Tricuspid valve

18
card image
  • A ( Right atrium )
  • B ( Tricuspid valve )
  • C ( Pulmonary veins )
  • D ( Mitral valve )
  • E ( Left ventricle )

...

19

Heart muscle is deprived of oxygen

Ischemia

20

Death of heart muscle cells

Infarction

21

A condition of rapid and irregular or out-of-phase contraction of heart muscle cells

Fibrillation

22

An abnormal pacemaker

Ectopic focus

23

Total heart relaxation

Quiescent period

24

Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?

Closure of the heart valves

25

What does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?

Ventricles are in diastole

26

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes?

lowering of BP due to change in cardiac output

27

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ____

Pump blood with greater pressure

28

Damage to the _______ is referred to as heart block

AV Node

29

The p wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates _______

Atrial depolarization

30

Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________

Left atrium

31

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the _______

Papillary muscles

32

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is _______

Angina pectoris

33

To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the _______

2nd intercostal space to the right of the sternum

34

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the _______

Coronary arteries

35

The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it _______

Pumps blood against a greater resistance

36

What is not an age related change affecting the heart?

Thinning of the valve flaps

37

What does not influence heart rate?

Skin color

38

If cardiac muscle is deprived of it's normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ______

Decreased delivery of oxygen

39

If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________

Tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

40

Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ______

Causing threshold to be reached more quickly

41

If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that ______

The heart rate would increase by about 25 bpm

42

Foramen ovale _____

Connects the two atria in the fetal heart

43

Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole

Both the aorta and pulmonary trunk

44

What is not part of the conduction system of the heart?

AV valve

45

The tricuspid valve is closed _______

When the ventricle is in systole

46

When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by _________

Noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

47

What is true about heart valves

The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

48

Myocardial cells

The entire heart contracts as a unit or it does not contract at all

49

What is true about the structure of the heart wall

The myocardium is the layer of the heart that actually contracts

50

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ______

Has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

51

During the period of ventricular filling ______

Blood flows passively through the atria and the open AV valves into the ventricles

52

The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

Isovolumetric relaxation

53

The time of the day most hazardous for heart attacks is _____

Morning

54

If we were able to artificially alter the membrane permeability of pacemaker cells so that sodium influx is more rapid ______

Threshold is reached more quickly and heart rate would increase

55

What is true about cardiac output?

A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction

56

What happens during contraction of heart muscle cells

Some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from intracellular stores

57

Isovolumetric contraction ______

Refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers

58

Commotio cordis is heart failure due to a _______

Relatively mild blow to the chest that occurs during a vulnerable interval ( 2ms) when the heart is repolarizing

59

The enlarged coronary vessel outside the heart that empties blood into the right atrium is the _______

Coronary sinus

60

What structure in the fetal heart allows blood to flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium?

Foramen ovale

61

The ECG T wave interval represents _______

Ventricular repolarization

62

CO = _________ x SV

HR

63

The ______ membrane covers the heart

Visceral layer of the serous pericardium

64

The _______ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae

Tricuspid

65

The _______ and _______ valves of the heart have no chordae tendineae attached

Aortic and Pulmonary

66

Systole

Contraction of the muscle

67

Diastole

Relaxation of the muscle

68
card image
  • (B) Axillary nodes
  • (D) Cisterna chyli
  • (A) Entrance of thoracic duct into subclavian veins
  • (C) Thoracic duct
  • (E) Lymphatic collecting vessels

...

69
card image
  • (E) Efferent vessels
  • (C) Cortex
  • (D) Medullary Cord
  • (A) Trabecula
  • (B) Medulla

...

70

Protein containing fluid within lymphatic vessels

Lymph

71

Stores blood platelets

Spleen

72

Receives lymph from most of the body

Thoracic duct

73

Small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels

Lymph Nodes

74

Largest lymphatic organ

Spleen

75

Isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine

Peyer's patch

76

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________

Lymph Nodes

77

What is not classified as a lymphatic structure?

Pancreas

78

What is not true about the thymus?

It has follicles similar to those in the spleen

79

What is not involved in lymph transport?

Smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

80

The thymus is most active during ________

Childhood

81

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

Right lymphatic duct

82

What is not part of the lymphatic system?

Erythrocytes

83

The lymphatic capillaries are ________

More permeable than blood capillaries

84

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by _______

Plasma cells

85

Lymph leaves a lymph node via _________

Efferent lymphatic vessels

86

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

Lymphocytes

87

What is not a function of the spleen?

Forming crypts that trap bacteria

88

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is _______

Severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

89

What is true of lymph transport?

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles

90

What is true about lymphocytes

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood

91

What is true about lymphoid tissue

Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue

92

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a _____

Tonsil

93

What does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

Thymus

94

Peyer's patches are found in the _________

Ileum of the small intestine

95

Lymph capillaries are absent except __________

Digestive organs

96

What is bubo?

An infected lymph node

97

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not ________

Directly fight antigens

98

Where do large clusters of lymph nodes not occur?

Lower extremities

99

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue is not included in _______

Islets of Langerhans

100

What is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

Capillary smooth muscle contraction

101

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________

Lingual tonsils

102

What is not a normal component of lymph?

Red blood cells

103

A sentinel node is ________

The first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

104

What are functions of lymphoid tissue?

  • House and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
  • Furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
105

What is not a function of the lymphatic system

Transporting respiratory gases

106

What is not a function of the lymph nodes

Produce lymph fluid and cerebrospinal fluid

107

The _______ are the simplest lymphoid organs and are found at the entrance to the pharynx.

Tonsils

108

The appendix, tonsils, and peyer's patches are examples of ________

MALT

109

Highly speacialized lymph capillaries called ____ are present in the villi of the intestinal mucosa.

lacteals

110

Splenic _____ pulp is primarily concerned with immune functions of the spleen

White

111

Tonsils have blind-ended structures called _______

Crypts

112

Thymic corpuscles are always found in the lighter-colored _______ regions of the thymus

Medullary

113

The ______ pulp of the spleen forms cuff's around the central arteries.

White

114

Lymphatic _____ are formed from the union of the largest collecting vessels

Trunks

115

Right Lymphatic Duct Drains ________

Right upper arm and right side of head and thorax

116

Thoracic Duct ____________

Drains rest of body

117

T cells mature in _____

Thymus

118

B cells mature in _______

Bones. Formed in bone marrow

119

What do lymph nodes do?

  • macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris.
  • lymphocytes activated and mount attack against antigens
120

Name the tonsils and where they are located.....

  • Palatine tonsils- posterior end of oral cavity
  • Lingual tonsil - at base of tongue
  • Pharyngeal tonsil - posterior wall of nasopharynx
  • Tubal tonsils - surround openings of auditory tubes into pharynx