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Campbell Biology
Chapters 8-10
updated 5 years ago by Mallory_Bagley
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1

Chapter 9

...

2
  • The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
  • Both catabolic and anabolic reactions

Metabolism

3
  • Degrative; to break chemical bonds.
  • Ex: cellular respiration, in which glucose is broken down into simpler substances, carbon dioxide and water.

Catabolic

4

The energy that is released from catabolic reactions is used to build complicated molecules in anabolic reactions called _____

Energy coupling

5
  • To build, to start with simple building blocks and build complex structures.
  • Ex: is protein synthesis from AA's and photosynthesis.

Anabolic

6
  • The capacity to cause change

Energy

7
  • Not currently moving but may still possess energy.
  • Water behind a dam.
  • Person about to dive.

Potential energy

8
  • Energy that is associated with the relative motion of objects.
  • When the diver is currently diving.
  • Moving objects

Kinetic energy

9
  • Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction

Chemical energy

10
  • The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.

Thermodynamics

11
  • The energy of the universe is constant: energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Also known as the principle of conservation of energy.

First Law of Thermodynamics

12

Increasing the ____ of the universe is always in the form of _____

Entropy

heat

13

Every energy transfer or transformation leads to an ______in the ________ of a system.

Increase

Entropy

14
  • A measure of disorder, or randomness

Entropy

15

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

Second law of Thermodynamics

16
  • Is a change that occurs with out outside help.
  • It can be use to perform work (diffusion, osmosis)

Spontaneous process

17

is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.

Non Spontaneous process

18

Energy can be graded from low to high forms. Energy is graded on weather it is capable of performing _____. The lowest grade is ____because it is random and performs no ____.

Work

heat

work

19

The portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.

Free energy

20

The change in free energy equation

change G= Change H- Change TchangeS

21

Free energy, stability, and equilibrium

ChangeG= G final state - G initial state

22
  • Energy out
  • Net release of free energy -G
  • Spontaneous

Exergonic reaction

23
  • Energy in
  • Net gain of free energy +G
  • Non spontaneous

Endergonic reaction

24

Glucose equation

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 >>>>>>>6 CO2 + 6 H2O

25

What are the three types of work a cell does?

Chemical work

Transport work

Mechanical work

26

The pushing of endergonic reactions that would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers is what kind of work?

Chemical work

27

The pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement is what kind of work?

Transport Work

28

Like the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, and the movement of chromosomes during cellular respiration is what kind of work?

Mechanical work

29

The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one is called

Energy coupling

30

ATP is useful to the cell because the energy it releases on _________ is somewhat greater than the energy most other molecules could deliver.

losing a phosphate group.

31

When ATP is _____ in a test tube, the release of free enrgy mearely heats the surrounding water.

ATP is hydrolzed.

32

The recipient molecule with the phosphate group covalently bonded to it is then called a....

Phosphorylated intermediate

33

An ______ is a macromolecule that acts as a _____, a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by a reaction.

Enzyme

Catalyst

34

What are two environmental factors affecting enzyme activity?

Each enzyme has an optimal temperature and pH that favor the most active shape of the protein molecule.

35

Many enzymes require nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity. These adjuncts may be bound tightly to the enzyme as permanent residents, or they may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate.

Cofactors

36

These mimics, reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.

Competitive inhibitors

37

These do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site.

Noncompetitive inhibition.

38

This term is used to describe any case in which a proteins function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site.

Allosteric regulation

39

This is when a metabolic pathway is halted by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway

Feedback inhibiiton.

40

Start Chapter 9

...

41

A partial degradation of sugars or other fuel that occurs without the use of oxygen

Fermentation

42

The most efficent catabolic pathway is _______, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.

Aerobic Respuration

43

The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.

Cellular respiration

44

The electron donor is the ______

Reducing agent

45

The electron acceptor is the _____

Oxidizing agent.

46

The loss of electrons from one substance to another is called ______

Oxidation

47

The addition of electrons to another substance is called _____

reduction

48

What are the 4 electronegative atoms

  • Chlorine
  • Flourine
  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen

NO F Cl

49

Consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins, built into the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.

Electron transport chain

50

Occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.

"split sugar"

Glycolysis

51

During the process the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide is completed. Thus, the carbon dioxide produced by respiration represents fragments of oxidized organic molecules.

Citric Acid Cycle

52

The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.

oxidative phosphorylation

53

The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

substrate-level phosphorylation

54

The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.

acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A)

55

the location of potential energy that comes from the original substrate.

NADH

56

The mechanism of ATP synthesis is.....

substrate level phosphorylation

57

Fate of carbon dioxide

Expiration

Or, becoming part of blood buffer system

58

Chapter 10

...

59

The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.

photosynthesis

60
  • An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms.
  • They use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.

Autotrophs

61

Way for plant to release water vapor, plant sweating

Transpiration

62

Hydrogen bond in water that helps it move up root system.

The number of H bonds creates_____

Cohesion

63

Light reactions produce

ATP

64

What pwers the calivn cycle

ATP

65

______Is a chemical coenzyme electron shuttle.

Chemical cousin to NAD and NADH (reducing power)

NADPH

66

This cycle does not need light to produce.

Calivin cycle

67

NADP+ is in an _____ state.

Oxidized.

68

CH2O is a

Sugar, monosaccharide, simple sugar.

69

CO2 >>>>> CH2O is a _____ reaction Carbon is ____

Redox

Reduced

70

Photosynthesis is a _____reaction, water is _____ and carbon dioxide is ____to sugar.

Redox

oxidized

reduced

71

The electrons ____ in energy as they move from water to sugar.

Increase

72

_____is a quantity, a discrete unit of light energy

Photon

73

The chlorophyll molecules of chloroplast absorb _____light (and use the energy), and reflect or transmit _____light

violet, blue, red

Green

74

A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.

thylakoid

75

The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

stroma

76

The green pigment that gives leaves their color, resides in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.

Chlorophyll