- The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
- Both catabolic and anabolic reactions
- Degrative; to break chemical bonds.
- Ex: cellular respiration, in which glucose is broken down into simpler substances, carbon dioxide and water.
The energy that is released from catabolic reactions is used to build complicated molecules in anabolic reactions called _____
- To build, to start with simple building blocks and build complex structures.
- Ex: is protein synthesis from AA's and photosynthesis.
- The capacity to cause change
- Not currently moving but may still possess energy.
- Water behind a dam.
- Person about to dive.
- Energy that is associated with the relative motion of objects.
- When the diver is currently diving.
- Moving objects
- Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
- The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.
- The energy of the universe is constant: energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
- Also known as the principle of conservation of energy.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Increasing the ____ of the universe is always in the form of _____
Every energy transfer or transformation leads to an ______in the ________ of a system.
- A measure of disorder, or randomness
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
Second law of Thermodynamics
- Is a change that occurs with out outside help.
- It can be use to perform work (diffusion, osmosis)
is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
Non Spontaneous process
Energy can be graded from low to high forms. Energy is graded on weather it is capable of performing _____. The lowest grade is ____because it is random and performs no ____.
The portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system, as in a living cell.
The change in free energy equation
change G= Change H- Change TchangeS
Free energy, stability, and equilibrium
ChangeG= G final state - G initial state
- Energy out
- Net release of free energy -G
- Energy in
- Net gain of free energy +G
- Non spontaneous
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 >>>>>>>6 CO2 + 6 H2O
What are the three types of work a cell does?
The pushing of endergonic reactions that would not occur spontaneously, such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers is what kind of work?
The pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement is what kind of work?
Like the beating of cilia, the contraction of muscle cells, and the movement of chromosomes during cellular respiration is what kind of work?
The use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one is called
ATP is useful to the cell because the energy it releases on _________ is somewhat greater than the energy most other molecules could deliver.
losing a phosphate group.
When ATP is _____ in a test tube, the release of free enrgy mearely heats the surrounding water.
ATP is hydrolzed.
The recipient molecule with the phosphate group covalently bonded to it is then called a....
An ______ is a macromolecule that acts as a _____, a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by a reaction.
What are two environmental factors affecting enzyme activity?
Each enzyme has an optimal temperature and pH that favor the most active shape of the protein molecule.
Many enzymes require nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity. These adjuncts may be bound tightly to the enzyme as permanent residents, or they may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate.
These mimics, reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites.
These do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site.
This term is used to describe any case in which a proteins function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site.
This is when a metabolic pathway is halted by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway
Start Chapter 9
A partial degradation of sugars or other fuel that occurs without the use of oxygen
The most efficent catabolic pathway is _______, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
The electron donor is the ______
The electron acceptor is the _____
The loss of electrons from one substance to another is called ______
The addition of electrons to another substance is called _____
What are the 4 electronegative atoms
NO F Cl
Consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins, built into the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.
Electron transport chain
Occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
During the process the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide is completed. Thus, the carbon dioxide produced by respiration represents fragments of oxidized organic molecules.
Citric Acid Cycle
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
acetyl CoA (acetyl coenzyme A)
the location of potential energy that comes from the original substrate.
The mechanism of ATP synthesis is.....
substrate level phosphorylation
Fate of carbon dioxide
Or, becoming part of blood buffer system
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
- An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms.
- They use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Way for plant to release water vapor, plant sweating
Hydrogen bond in water that helps it move up root system.
The number of H bonds creates_____
Light reactions produce
What pwers the calivn cycle
______Is a chemical coenzyme electron shuttle.
Chemical cousin to NAD and NADH (reducing power)
This cycle does not need light to produce.
NADP+ is in an _____ state.
CH2O is a
Sugar, monosaccharide, simple sugar.
CO2 >>>>> CH2O is a _____ reaction Carbon is ____
Photosynthesis is a _____reaction, water is _____ and carbon dioxide is ____to sugar.
The electrons ____ in energy as they move from water to sugar.
_____is a quantity, a discrete unit of light energy
The chlorophyll molecules of chloroplast absorb _____light (and use the energy), and reflect or transmit _____light
violet, blue, red
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
The green pigment that gives leaves their color, resides in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.