Bio 2: The Invertebrates Flashcards


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1

An animal that is attached to the substrate and cannot move from one place to another is said to be:
A. rooted
B. sessile
C. sedentious
D. fixated
E. commatose

sessile

2

Animals that lack a vertebral column are known as:
A. inarticulates
B. invertebrates
C. supinates
D. retrogrades
E. aspinates

invertebrates

3

Which of the following statements correctly traces the route of water through a sponge?
A. enters through the osculum into the spongocoel and exits via the ostia
B. enters through the spongocoel into the osculum and exits via the ostia
C. enters through the ostia into the osculum and exits via the spongocoel
D. enters through the ostia into the spongocoel and exits via the osculum
E. enters through the osculum into the ostia and exits via the spongocoel

enters through the ostia into the spongocoel and exits via the osculum

4

The choanocytes have a flagellum that moves water through the sponge and a collar that extracts food particles from the water. In what group have you encountered very similar cells before?
A. the choanoflagellates
B. the chytrids
C. the Euglenozoa
D. the charophytes
E. the Foraminifera

the choanoflagellates

5

In which part of a sponge's body does fertilization occur?
A. the ostium
B. the mesohyl
C. the spicule
D. the spongin
E. the amoebocyte

the mesohyl

6

An individual animal that can produce both sperm and eggs is known as:
A. a gametophyte
B. an hermaphrodite
C. a morphodyte
D. a bisexual
E. a transexual

an hermaphrodite

7

Which of the following is NOT a cnidarian?
A. a comb jelly
B. a jellyfish
C. a hydra
D. a sea anemone
E. a coral

a comb jelly

8

The Porifera and Cnidaria have superficially similar body plans. Indicate which of the following does NOT describe equivalent features in the two groups.
A. spongocoel and gastrovascular cavity
B. mesohyl and mesoglea
C. osculum and mouth/anus
D. epithelial cells and epidermis
E. spongin and polyp

spongin and polyp

9

Which statement best characterizes the life cycle of cnidarians?
A. All species have both polyps and medusae.
B. Some have only polyps, some have both polyps and medusae, and others have medusae and a reduced polyp stage.
C. Some species have only medusae and others have both polyps and medusae.
D. Some species have only polyps and others have both polyps and medusae.
E. Some species have polyps and others have medusae, but no species has both.

Some have only polyps, some have both polyps and medusae, and others have medusae and a reduced polyp stage.

10

Which of the following statements best describes characteristics of Platyhelminthes?
A. They are acoelomate.
B. They are triploblastic.
C. They have an incomplete digestive system.
D. They respire by diffusion of gases through the body wall.
E. All the choices provided are true.

They are acoelomate.
They are triploblastic.
They have an incomplete digestive system.
They respire by diffusion of gases through the body wall.
E. All the choices provided are true.

11

The basic excretory unit in the protonephridia of flatworms is a:
A. scolex
B. flame cell
C. cnidocil
D. ganglion
E. cercaria

flame cell

12

Which of the following groups or animals is NOT a member of the Platyhelminthes?
A. planarian
B. monogenean
C. tapeworm
D. trematode
E. ctenophore

ctenophore

13

The life cycle of the Chinese liver fluke goes through which of the following sequences in its life history?
A. adult, shelled embryo, miracidium, cercaria, sporocyst, rediae, metacercaria, adult
B. adult, shelled embryo, miracidium, sporocyst, rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, adult
C. adult, shelled embryo, miracidium, metacercaria, sporocyst, rediae, cercaria, adult
D. adult, miracidium, sporocyst, rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, shelled embryo, adult
E. adult, shelled embryo, sporocyst, rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, miracidium, adult

adult, shelled embryo, miracidium, sporocyst, rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, adult

14

Parthenogenesis is:
A. reproduction by way of diploid females laying diploid eggs that hatch into diploid females
B. asexual reproduction by way of budding of a new individual from the parent
C. reproduction by way of diploid females laying haploid eggs that require fertilization by sperm
D. reproduction by way of haploid females laying haploid eggs that hatch into haploid females
E. reproduction by way of diploid females laying haploid eggs that hatch into haploid males who in turn produce sperm that fertilizes other haploid eggs

reproduction by way of diploid females laying diploid eggs that hatch into diploid females

15

Which of the following statements is NOT true of lophophorates?
A. Their tentacles serve both in respiration and in feeding.
B. They have a U-shaped digestive tract.
C. They have a true coelom.
D. There are three phyla of them: Phoronida, Bryozoa, Brachiopoda.
E. They are parthenogenetic.

They are parthenogenetic.

16

An open circulatory system differs from a closed one in that:
A. The open circulatory system has a combination of blood vessels and large thin-walled sinuses whereas a closed circulatory system has only vessels.
B. A closed circulatory system is completely encased in the body cavity whereas the open one is not.
C. An open circulatory system opens into the heart whereas the closed circulatory system does not.
D. An open circulatory system opens into arteries and is drained by veins whereas in a closed one it is just the reverse.
E. An open circulatory system drains into the mantle cavity whereas a closed circulatory system drains into the hemolymph.

The open circulatory system has a combination of blood vessels and large thin-walled sinuses whereas a closed circulatory system has only vessels.

17

The protrusible rasping organ in a mollusk's mouth that is used to scrape food from the substrate is:
A. a veliger
B. a visceral mass
C. composed of nacre
D. a radula
E. an ammonite

a radula

18

Which of the following is NOT a mollusk?
A. a chiton
B. a nautilus
C. a nudibranch
D. an oyster
E. a brachiopod

a brachiopod

19

Which of the following statements is NOT true of cephalopods?
A. Some are very large and can weigh as much as two tons.
B. Some are very intelligent and are good learners.
C. Some have shells and some do not.
D. They are predatory.
E. They have an open circulatory system.

They have an open circulatory system

20

The phylum Annelida contains:
A. freshwater oligochaete worms
B. marine polychaete worms
C. earthworms
D. leeches
E. all of the choices provided

freshwater oligochaete worms
marine polychaete worms
earthworms
leeches
E. all of the choices provided

21

Which of the following structures DOES NOT occur in a series of successive segments of an earthworm?
A. crop
B. nerve cord
C. setae
D. circular muscles
E. metanephridia

crop

22

The polychaetes differ from other classes of annelids by possessing:
A. setae
B. giant axons
C. parapoida
D. body segments
E. none of the choices provided

parapoida

23

Hirudinea is the only class of annelids that contains:
A. species that are parasitic blood suckers
B. species with a segmented body
C. parapodia
D. a gizzard
E. a clitellum

species that are parasitic blood suckers

24

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is important to human medicine because:
A. It causes elephantiasis, a disease of the lymph glands that causes the legs of humans to swell.
B. It is an intestinal parasite in human digestive tracts.
C. It has programmed cell death and therefore is useful in cancer and AIDS research.
D. It causes an infection that produces severe anal itching.
E. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes high fevers.

It has programmed cell death and therefore is useful in cancer and AIDS research.

25

Nematodes are unusual among worms of other major phyla by:
A. having longitudinal muscles but no circular muscles
B. having separate male and female individuals
C. by shedding their integument
D. by having a tough cuticle made largely of collagen
E. All of the choices provided are correct

having longitudinal muscles but no circular muscles
having separate male and female individuals
by shedding their integument
by having a tough cuticle made largely of collagen
E. All of the choices provided are correct

26

Respiration in adult terrestrial insects is achieved by way of:
A. gills
B. tracheae
C. book lungs
D. passage of respiratory gases through the cuticle
E. Malphigian tubules

tracheae

27

The defining characteristics of the phylum Arthropoda are:
A. jointed legs, ecdysis, and an exoskeleton
B. antennae, six legs, and mandibles
C. compound eyes, book lungs, and the hemocoel
D. Malphigian tubules, ommatidia, and tagmata
E. spiracles, cephalothorax, and proboscis

jointed legs, ecdysis, and an exoskeleton

28

Which of the following kinds of animals are NOT arthropods?
A. crabs
B. trilobites
C. centipedes
D. mites
E. nautilus

nautilus

29

Which of the following structures is NOT possessed by spiders?
A. cephalothorax
B. pedicel
C. pedipalps
D. spinnerets
E. antennae

antennae

30

Which of the following couplets DOES NOT give the correct kinds of insects contained in the Order?
A. Coleoptera: beetles
B. Lepidoptera: grasshoppers
C. Diptera: flies
D. Hemiptera: bugs
E. Hymenoptera: ants, bees, and wasps

Lepidoptera: grasshoppers

31

The change of a larval form of insect to a different adult form is known as:
A. tagmosis
B. incomplete metamorphosis
C. complete metamorphosis
D. instar
E. chrysalis

complete metamorphosis

32

Which of the following kinds of animals are NOT crustaceans?
A. krill
B. barnacles
C. ostracods
D. pill bugs
E. scorpions

scorpions

33

Which of the following is NOT an immature stage of an animal?
A. nauplius
B. trochophore
C. caterpillar
D. nymph
E. swimmeret

swimmeret

34

Which of the following statements best describes features that are characteristic of crustaceans?
A. two pairs of antennae
B. antennal glands and maxillary glands
C. calcium carbonate deposited in the exoskeleton
D. internal fertilization
E. all of the choices provided

two pairs of antennae
antennal glands and maxillary glands
calcium carbonate deposited in the exoskeleton
internal fertilization
E. all of the choices provided

35

Which of the following best describes the route of water into the water vascular system of a starfish?
A. Water enters through the madreporite into the ring canal and from thence into the radial canals to the ampullae and finally into the tube feet.
B. Water enters the madreporite into the radial canals and from thence into the ring canal, then the ampullae and finally into the tube feet.
C. Water enters the madreporite into the ampullae and from thence into the ring canal, then the radial canals to the ampullae and finally into the tube feet.
D. Water enters the ampullae and then goes to the tube feet and from thence to the radial canals, then the ring canal, and finally exits through the madreporite.
E. Water enters the ring canal, then goes into the radial canals, and finally through the madreporite to the ampullae and tube feet.

Water enters through the madreporite into the ring canal and from thence into the radial canals to the ampullae and finally into the tube feet.

36

Which of the following is not a defining trait of the phylum Chordata?
A. notochord
B. dorsal hollow nerve cord
C. pharyngeal slits
D. post anal tail
E. protostome development

protostome development

37

The invertebrate group most closely related to the vertebrates is:
A. Echinodermata
B. Urochordata
C. Cephalochordata
D. Ophiouroidea
E. Notochordata

Cephalochordata

38

In humans the pharyngeal slits mostly disappear during development, except for one pair that in the adults forms:
A. a cleft palate
B. the Eustachian tubes
C. the thyroid gland
D. the glottis
E. the opening to the voice box

the Eustachian tubes

39

Some vertebrates like frogs and humans do not have a conspicuous tail, yet even humans have the remnant of one known as the:
A. sacrum
B. lumbar
C. spina bifida
D. fundus
E. coccyx

coccyx

40

Garstang's theory states that the vertebrates originated from:
A. larval tunicates that developed the ability to reproduce sexually while retaining the larval body form
B. a gradual modification of the adult body form of Urochordates
C. larval Cephalochordates that developed the ability to reproduce sexually while retaining the larval body form
D. echinoderms with a post anal tail and notochord
E. segmented echinoderms

larval tunicates that developed the ability to reproduce sexually while retaining the larval body form

41

Which of the following statements does NOT correctly describe differences between larval and adult tunicates?
A. Larval tunicates have a conspicuous notochord that is lost by the time they become adults.
B. Larval tunicates have a hollow dorsal nerve cord that is reduced to only a ganglion in the adult.
C. The tail of the larval tunicate is lost by the time it transforms into an adult.
D. The pharynx of the larval tunicate becomes more prominent in the adult.
E. The larval tunicate lacks an incurrent and excurrent siphon but the adult has both structures.

The larval tunicate lacks an incurrent and excurrent siphon but the adult has both structures.