Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Connective Tissue Review (Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, & Neural) Flashcards
Name the four types of tissue
What are the three main functions of Epithelial tissue?
Cover exposed surfaces
Lines internal passageways
What are the main functions of Connective tissue?
Fills internal spaces
Supports other tissues
What does muscle tissue specialize in?
Where does muscle contraction take place?
Walls of hollow organs
What does Neural tissues do?
Carries electrical signals from one part of the body to another.
List the functions of Connective Tissue
Establish structural framework
transport fluids and dissolved materials
Supporting, surrounding, and interconnecting other types of tissue
Storing energy, mainly in the form of triglycerides
Defend the body from invading microorganisms
List the classification of Connective Tissue
CT Proper (connect and Protect)
Fluid CT (Transport)
Supporting CT (Structure)
What are the two subcategories of CT Proper?
What is included in the Loose CT Proper?
What is included in the Dense CT Proper?
Connective Tissue has special fibers that have different properties. What are the connective fibers called?
Which Connective Tissue Fiber is the most common and where is it found? How many directions can it resist force in?
Found in tendons and Ligaments
Which connective tissue fiber is known for stabilizing functional cells and structures? How many directions can it resist force in and how does it interlock?
Network of interwoven fibers (Stroma)
Strong and flexible
Resist force in MANY directions
Which Connective tissue contains Elastic and where is it found?
Branched and wavy
Return to original length after stretching
Elastic ligaments of vertebrae and aorta
Which loose CT Proper is least specialized and where can it be found?
Elastic Fibers (fibroblast cells)
Holds blood vessels and capillary beds
I.E. subcutaneous layer
What secretes the protiens that produce the college fibers?
fibroblast cells (large, flat, irregularly shaped)
What is the dense irregular connective tissue outside the cartilage called?
What is the connective tissue layer surrounding the outside of the bone?
What makes up most of the liver?
What CT Proper Loose provides padding, cushion shocks, store energy, and insulates?
What is the name of the cells that make up CT Proper, Loose Adipose Tissue?
What do adipocytes store as energy?
What shape are elastic fibers?
Name Reticular Tissue organs
What are the formed elements of blood?
RBC (most numerous)
Which CT makes up tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses?
Dense Regular CT
What is the function of Dense Regular CT?
Provide firm attachment
Conducts pull of muscle
What is Aponeuroses?
Large sheets that attach to large flat muscles like abdominal muscles
Which CT Proper is made up of interwoven networks of collagen?
Dense Irregular CT
Where can you find Dense Irregular CT?
Around Cartilage and Bones
in Capsules around some organs like liver and Kidneys
What CT helps to prevent over extension in the urinary bladder?
Dense Irregular CT
Where is Elastic CT found and what is it made with?
Found in arteries, elastic ligaments of spinal vertebrea
Made with Elastin
Name the two main types of Fluid Connective Tissues
Blood and Lymph
What are the two kinds supporting Connective Tissue?
Cartilage ( for shock support)
Bone ( for weight support)
What are the three types of Cartilage?
What is the major cells of Cartilage?
Chondrocytes (cartilage cells) surrounded by lacuna (chambers).
What is the major difference between Elastic Cartalage and Elastic tissue?
Elastic cartatalage has chondrocytes.
What cartilage is found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum, and trachea?
What cartilage reduces friction between bones, gives stiff, flexible support and has no visible collagen or elastic fibers?
Which cartilage is found in the external ear and epiglottis? Why are they good for those areas?
Its supportive but bends easily
This cartilage limits movement, provides padding in the knee joint, and prevents bone to bone contact?
Where are the three big areas that fibrocartilage is found?
What is the tissue name for bone?
What is a bone cell called?
How are Osteocytes arranged in a bone?
Around central canals within a matrix
There are small channels through the bone matrix. What are they called and what are they for?
To access blood supply
Name the three kinds of Muscle Tissue
What is skeletal muscle responsible for?
Where do you find cardiac and smooth muscle tissue at?
Cardiac - in heart
Smooth - in the walls of hollow contracting organs (I.E. Respiratory or G.I. tract)
Give the 2 Classifications of Muscle Cells
Nonstirated (Not banded but smooth)
How many nuclei can muscle cells have?
Single or multinucleated
What two ways can muscle cells be controlled and give an example of each?
Voluntary - walking
Involuntary - breathing
Are skeletal muscle cells striated or non? What do they look like? How many nucleus do they have?
They are long and thin
New skeletal muscle fivers are produced by stem cells called what?
Are Cardiac muscle cells striated or non? How many nucleus to they have? How are they connected and what regulates them?
Have only 1 nucleus
Form branching networks connected at inertcalated discs
Regulated by SA node (Pacemaker cells)
Are smooth muscle cells striated or non? What do they look like? How do they multiply?
Divide and regenerate
Neural tissue specializes in what?
Conducting electrical impulses
Sensing internal/external environment
Processes and controls responses
Describe the 3 main cell parts of a neuron body
Cell body - contains the nucleus and nucleoulus
Dendrites - short branches from the body that receive incoming signal
Axon (nerve fiber) - long thin extension of cell body that carries outgoing electrical signals