Biology Ch4

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Explain how carbon's electron configuration explains its ability to form large,complex and diverse organic molecules

it has four valence electrons which can form many covalent bonds, of different combinations of single and double bonds,and multiple carbon atoms can form long chains such as gasoline.


Describe 4 ways carbon skeletons may vary, and explain how this variation
contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules.

Covalent bonds link carbon atoms together in long chains that form the skeletal framework for organic molecules. These carbon skeletons may vary in:
-Number and Location of double bonds
-Other elements covalently bonded to available site


Name the 6 major functional groups found in organic molecules. ACCHPS

Amino, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Hydroxyl, Phosphate, Sulfhydryl


Amino functional group

Consists of nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens (-NH2)


Carboxyl functional group

acidic, tends to drop a proton, forms with amines to make amino acids Amino acids are linked together by covalent bonds that are formed between amino and carboxyl containing groups

Consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also attached to a hydroxyl group (-COOH)


Carbonyl functional group

acts as an acid, tends to lose a proton in solution. found on aldehyde and ketone molecules. The carbonyl functional group is the site of reactions that link these molecules into more complex compounds like ribose

Consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (CO)


Hydroxyl functional group

Hydroxyl groups act as weak acids. Highly polar, molecules with hydroxyl groups are soluble. Defining functional group of alcohols such as ethanol and methanol


Phosphate functional group

Phosphate groups carry two negative charges and they go from one molecule to another, the two negative charges often greatly affects the receiving molecule
When several phosphate groups are linked together, breaking O-P bonds between them releases large amounts of energy.


Sulfhydryl functional group

Sulfhydryl groups are a sulfur atom bonded to a hydron atom, they link up with disulfides S-S bonds. In proteins, they form disulfide bonds that contribute to protein structure


Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these molecules are hydrophobic.

Hydrocarbons consists of only carbon and hydrogen. The nonpolar C-H bonds in hydrocarbon chains account for their hydrophobic properties


Distinguish among the three types of isomers: structural, geometric, and enantiomer.

Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangement of atoms and often in the location of double bonds.
Geometric isomers have the same sequence of covalently bonded atoms but differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bonds.
Enantiomers are left- and right-handed versions of each other and can differ greatly in their biological activity.


Name the major chemical groups found in organic molecules. Describe the basic structure of each chemical group and outline the chemical properties of the organic molecules in which they occur.

Hydroxyl group consists of an oxygen and hydrogen (-OH). Carbonyl group consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen (CO).
Carboxyl group consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also attached to a hydroxyl group (-COOH). Amino group consists of nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens (-NH2). Sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen (-SH). Phosphate group is bonded to the carbon skeleton by an oxygen attached to a phosphorus atom that is bonded to three other oxygen atoms (-OPO3^2-). Methyl group is a carbon bonded to three hydrogens (-CH3).


Explain how ATP function as the primary energy transfer molecules in living cells

One phosphate molecule, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is the primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell
ATP consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups