Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chp. 16 Endocrine System Study Questions Flashcards


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1
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Ovary - produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.

Pituitary gland - storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

Testis - Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.

Adrenal glands - Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

Hypothalamus - Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.

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2
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Bones and muscles - Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

Mammary glands - Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)

Testes or ovaries - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Thyroid - Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Adrenal cortex - Cortocotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

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3

Addison's disease - hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex

Acromegaly - autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland

Diabetes mellitus - hyposecretion of the pancreas

Pituitary dwarfism - hyposecretion of growth hormone

Graves disease - hypersecretion of growth hormone

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4

Cushing's disease - hypersecretion of adrenal cortex

Myxedema - hyposecretion of thyroid in adults

Acromegaly - hypersection of growth hormone

Cretinism - hyposecretion of thyroid in infants

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5

Thyroid - produces the body's major metabolic hormones

Adrenal medulla - gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction

Hypophysis - the size and shape of a pea: produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.

Parathyroid - produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue.

Pancreas - produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body.

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6
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Zona glomerulosa - produces aldosterone

Zona fasciculate - produces glucocorticoids, produces androgens, excess hormone levels result in Cushings syndrome.

Adrenal medulla - produces epinephrine, hormones mimic sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters

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7

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of _______

cortisol

8

Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by _____

thymus gland

9

All of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular _______

second messengers

10

What is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus

enzyme

11

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________

hormones

12

The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

partly contained within the infundibulum

13

Oxytocin

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

14

ADH

Is inhibited by alcohol

15

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by

entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei

16

Gonadocortioids

production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty

17

Prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as

down-regulation

18

What is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

direct control of the nervous system

19

The ability of specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on?

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

20

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the _______

hypophyseal portal system

21

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because _____

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

22

Steroid hormones exert their action by ______

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

23

The second messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ?

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

24

Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because?

during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes

25

Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond , It is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because _____

G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

26

Thyroid hormone enters target cells in a manner similar to_____

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

27

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that Is released during the alarm phase of the general adaption syndrome is ________

epinephrine

28

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which describes this mechanism?

humoral stimulation

29

The major targets of growth hormones are ______

bones and skeletal muscles

30

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through _____

targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released

31

Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP?

the heart

32

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ______

cortisol

33

...

adipocytes

34

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ______

aldosterone

35

What is not a steroid based hormone?

epinephrine

36

Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells?

a hormone-receptor complex that interacts directly with the cells DNA

37

Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second-messengers systems include ___

possible activation of several different second-messenger systems

38

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ______

first enter into the hypophyseal portal system

39

ACTH _______

secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion

40

What is true about calcium homeostasis?

Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood

41

Aldosterone ________

functions to increase sodium reabsorption

42

The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is ______

TH

43

Which organ does not have a hormone production?

liver

44

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ______

up-regulation

45

Eicosanoids do not include _____

hydrocortisones

46

A man was told that he is not synthesizing enough FSH, and for this reason he ay be unable to father a child. Explain this problem...

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes

47

What organ is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?

liver

48

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but it's mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Why is this _____

it does not require a second messenger to effect a response

49

How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?

by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure

50

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid based hormones?

calcium

51

What hormones are synthesized from cholesterol?

Steroids

52

________ is a hormone that has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts.

Prolactin

53

________ are the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone

acromegaly & gigantism

54

The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ______

thyroid

55

Which hormone stimulates production of RBC's and which organ or structure produces it?

erythropoietin, kidneys

56

Alpha islet cells produce _______, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone

glucagon

57

The _____ gland my influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity

pineal

58

The ____ gland declines in size and function with age

thymus

59

Endocrine gland stimuli include hormonal, _____, and ______ stimuli

humoral, neural

60

As a result of stress, the adenohypophysis releases _____, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retain sodium and water, increase blood sugar and begin breaking down fats.

ACTH