AP Reproductive system Flashcards

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33) Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.



32) During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
A) LH reaches its highest levels
B) progesterone levels are at their highest
C) estrogen reaches its highest levels
D) the Graafian follicle forms



34) Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?
A) hypothalamus
B) anterior pituitary gland
C) thalamus
D) testes



29) Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
A) Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
B) Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
C) Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.
D) Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.



15) Spermiogenesis involves the ________.
A) formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium
B) movement of sperm in the female genital tract
C) formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
D) sequence of events in the rete testis



10) The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
A) Graafian follicles
B) fallopian tubes
C) infundibula
D) fimbriae



7) Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
A) that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
B) the suppression of inhibin
C) secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
D) that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy



3) The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
A) parasympathetic nerves
B) the dartos muscle
C) luteinizing hormone
D) the bulbospongiosus muscles



41) Spermatogenesis ________.
A) is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
B) involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
C) results in the formation of diploid cells
D) uses mitosis to produce gamete cells



42) Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
C) progesterone
D) estrogen



43) The brain-testicular axis ________.
A) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
B) involves FSH and LH release
C) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis



46) Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
B) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
C) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.



50) Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
A) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
B) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
C) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
D) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.



52) All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
B) estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle
C) the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation
D) a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation



T/F 6) Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.



T/F 28) The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.



13) The adenohypophyseal hormone that triggers ovulation is estrogen.



9) The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.



2) The prostate atrophies as a man ages, and it usually causes no health problems.



27) The zona pellucida is formed as the follicle becomes a secondary follicle.



Which of the following about sperm is not true?

A) The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

B) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.

C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.

D) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.



Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.

A) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

B) contraction of uterine muscles

C) development of the female secondary sex characteristics

D) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium



The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.

A) sustentacular cells

B) interstitial cells

C) spermatogonia

D) spermatocytes



The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.

A) spermatocytes

B) interstitial cells

C) sustentacular cells

D) spermatogonia



Erection of the penis results from ________.

A) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands

B) a sympathetic reflex

C) dilation of the veins in the penis

D) a parasympathetic reflex



Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

A) vesicular follicle growth

B) development of endometrial cells

C) corpus luteum

D) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline



Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

A) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.

B) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.

C) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

D) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.



Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

A) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase

B) blood levels of FSH fall off

C) the corpus luteum secretes estrogen

D) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease



Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.

A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.

B) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.

C) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.



Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?

A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.

B) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.

C) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.

D) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.



Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?

A) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation

B) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus

C) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

D) maximal LH secretion and menstruation



Teresa has been complaining of severe abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and a low-grade fever. What might be the doctor's diagnosis, and how should the condition be treated?

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (bacterial infection caused by gonorrhea)

Treatment Penicilin


A 38-year-old male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a "practitioner" who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. Although his patients experience a huge surge in libido, their sperm count is even lower after hormone treatment. Explain why.`

large dosage of Testosterone inhibits GnRH-> inhibit FSH-> spermatogenesis is inhibited by FSH


Mr. and Mrs. John Takahama, a young couple who had been trying unsuccessfully to have a family for years, underwent a series of tests with a fertility clinic to try to determine the problem. Mr. Takahama was found to have a normal sperm count, and the sperm morphology and motility were normal. (1) If his count had been low, what type of information should be collected to determine the cause of the low count? Mrs. Takahama's history sheet revealed that she had two episodes of PID during her early 20s, and the time span between successive menses ranged from 21 to 30 days. She claimed that her family was "badgering" her about not giving them grandchildren and that she was frequently despondent. A battery of hormonal tests was ordered, and Mrs. Takahama was asked to perform a cervical mucus test and daily basal temperature recordings. Additionally, gas was blown through her uterine tubes to determine their patency. Her tubes proved to be closed and she was determined to be anovulatory. (2) What do you suggest might have caused the closing of her tubes? Which of the tests done or ordered would have revealed her anovulatory condition?

1. Low sperm count= order hormonal tests

2. Pelvic inflammatory disease closes Fallopian tubes.


Debbye has been having pelvic pain, especially during her monthly period, for many months. She has been to several doctors and they all tell her that she is just experiencing extra-heavy monthly flows. The tests all turn up negative. She has been trying to conceive but nothing works. What could the problem be?

endometriosus (blockage of Fallopian tubes)


Explain the purpose of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment.

Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors to inhibit estrogen - mediated tumor growth


The portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the ________.

stratnum basalis


What are some risk factors for developing breast cancer?

(1) early onset of menses and late menopause;

(2) first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all;

(3) familial history of breast cancer;

(4) postmenopausal hormone replacement.


what is the name given to female homologue to penis?

The female clitoris is homologous to the glans penis of the male.


describe the composition and functional roles of semen.

Semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands). The liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements.


Explain the function of the myometrium and endometrium.

The myometrium plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development.


At what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it?

Genetic sex is determined at the instant the genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. The determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains.


What is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland?

Because it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the urethra.