final q& a part 2 Flashcards


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1

The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

loses electrons and loses potential energy.

2

Which of the following statements describes the results of this reaction?
C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂ → 6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O + Energy

C₆H₁₂O₆ is oxidized and O₂ is reduced

3

When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes

oxidized.

4

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

substrate-level phosphorylation.

5

In cellular respiration, the energy for most ATP synthesis is supplied by

a proton gradient across a membrane ****

6

In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?

energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase, down the electrochemical gradient

7

Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?

glycolysis

8

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of

ATP, CO₂, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

9

Which statement best supports the hypothesis that glycolysis is an ancient metabolic pathway that originated before the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth?

Glycolysis is widespread and is found in the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. ******************************************

10

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

It does not involve organelles or specialized structures, does not require oxygen, and is present in most organisms. *****************************************************

11

A mutation in yeast makes it unable to convert pyruvate to ethanol. How will this mutation affect these yeast cells?

The mutant yeast will be unable to grow anaerobically.

12

Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

glycolysis

13

Most CO₂ from catabolism is released during

the citric acid cycle. **********************************************

14

Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

ATP and NADPH

15

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of
A) reducing NADP⁺.

splitting water molecules.

16

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be

to test for liberation of O₂ in the light.

17

What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?

establishment of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane ***************************************************

18

In mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

the stroma to the thylakoid space ***

19

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, whereas respiration releases it. **********************************************

20

In metabolic processes of cell respiration and photosynthesis, prosthetic groups such as heme and iron-sulfur complexes are encountered in components of the electron transport chain. What do they do?

both oxidize and reduce during electron transport

21

the centromere is a region in which

chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase

22

why do chromosomes coil during mitosis

to allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled and breaking

23

which of the following best describes how chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle during mitosis

the chromosomes are "reeled in" by the contraction of spindle microtubules and motor proteins

24

during which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes

telophase

25

which of the following does not occur during mitosis

replication of the DNA

26

which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16

each cell has eight homologous pairs

27

if a cell has completed the first meiotic division and is just beginning meiosis 2 which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents

it has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.

28

chromatids are separated from each other

the statement is true for mitosis and meiosis II
******************************************

29

independent assortment of chromosomes occurs

the statement is true for meiosis 1 only

30

centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate.

telophase II

31

independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

the random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I

32

which of the following statements is true of linkage?

the closer two genes are on a chromosome, the lower the probability that a crossover will occur between them.

33

if nondisjunction occurs in meiosis II during gametogenesis, what will be the result at the completion of meiosis

1/4 of the gametes will be n + 1, 1/4 will be n - 1, and 1/2 will be n. ******************************

34

suppose that a gene on human chromosome 18 can be imprinted in a given pattern in a female parent but not in a male parent. a couple in whom each maternal meiosis is followed by imprinting of the gene have children. what can we expect as a likely outcome?

all the children will bear their mother's imprinting pattern but only daughters will then pass it down

35

which of the following statements is true about protein synthesis in prokaryotes?

translation can begin while transcription is still in progress.