Genetics Chapter 19 Flashcards


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1

Random segregation of organelles during cell division is likely to result in an increased rate of which of the following?

A) incomplete penetrance

B) dominant loss-of-function mutations

C) dominant gain-of-function mutations

D) chromosomal duplication mutations

E) chromosomal deletion mutations

A) incomplete penetrance

2

The human egg has about 2000 mtDNA, but somatic cells have a range of hundreds to thousands. Which of the following is most likely to account for the difference?

A) Heteroplastic cells can give rise to homoplastic cells.

B) Large mitochondria in oocytes can divide into many smaller mitochondria, and smaller mitochondria can fuse.

C) Specific tissue types replicate organelle DNA far more frequently than they do nuclear DNA.

D) Mutant mitochondria replicate at different frequencies than do wild type.

E) Haploid organelle genomes can replicate to form diploid or polyploidy genomes.

B) Large mitochondria in oocytes can divide into many smaller mitochondria, and smaller mitochondria can fuse.

3

The direction of shell coiling in snails such as Limnea peregra is determined by the egg's genotype, which affects orientation of the spindle in early cleavage divisions. How could the egg genotype cause the directional orientation of a spindle in the embryo?

A) by products of mitochondrial genes that pull the centrioles toward the mitochondrial position

B) by attachment of spindle fibers to mitochondria at the edges of the cell

C) by maternally directed placement of mRNAs and proteins at appropriate positions in the egg cytoplasm

D) by the release of maternal mitochondrial genomes into the egg cytoplasm

E) by zygotic gene activation due to maternal mitochondrial genes

C) by maternally directed placement of mRNAs and proteins at appropriate positions in the egg cytoplasm

4

Extrachromosomal inheritance includes organelle inheritance, infectious inheritance, and maternal effectsthat is, anything transmitted through the cytosol. In infectious heredity, the infecting pathogen is cytoplasmic. What other non-Mendelian characteristic(s) must also occur?

A) infection of specific organelles

B) transfer of the pathogen's genes to the host nucleus

C) transfer of the pathogen's genes to the organelles

D) infection passing from maternal cytoplasm to egg cytoplasm

E) infection passing from maternal nucleus to egg nucleus

D) infection passing from maternal cytoplasm to egg cytoplasm

5

Sigma virus infection in Drosophila melanogaster causes flies to become paralyzed and then die in high concentrations of CO2. The virus is passed on extrachromosomally. Two isogenic strains of Drosophila cultures are maintained: R (resistant to CO2 or wild type) and S (susceptible to CO2, infected with sigma). After crosses between male R and female S flies, subsets of offspring of each gender are tested for CO2 sensitivity. Which of the following results do you expect?

A) All the offspring are sensitive.

B) All the offspring are female.

C) All the offspring are male.

D) All the offspring are sensitive, but only males pass it on.

E) Only male offspring backcrossed to the female parent are sensitive.

A) All the offspring are sensitive.

6

In certain Latin American countries where, during periods of political volatility, children were removed from their families and the parents murdered (then referred to as the "disappeared"), the best possibility of restoring the children to members of their larger family have used mtDNA matching. Why and how?

A) Remains of the children's mothers can be used to match their mtDNA with that of their children.

B) Children's mitochondria will have genomes that are 1/4 identical to each of their grandparents.

C) Children's mitochondria will have genomes that are 1/2 identical to their maternal grandparents.

D) Children's mitochondria will have genomes that are identical to 1/2 of those of their maternal grandmothers.

E) Children's mtDNA will be identical to those of their first cousins.

D) Children's mitochondria will have genomes that are identical to 1/2 of those of their maternal grandmothers.

7

The noncoding regions of mammalian mitochondrial genomes have few to no repair mechanisms, but no real selective pressure. Which of the following are consequences of this condition?

A) a rate of mutation that is much higher than that of nuclear sequences

B) a high rate of loss of mitochondrial genomes relative to nuclear sequences

C) a high rate of natural selection for genomes identical to those of the mother

D) a lower rate of mutations that remain in maternal lineages over evolutionary time

E) a rate of mutation that can increase with successive generations in a maternal line

A) a rate of mutation that is much higher than that of nuclear sequences

8

In Leber's disease (LHON), degeneration of the optic nerve results in blindness due to a defect in NADH dehydrogenase affecting electron transport. If this is due to a mutation in a mitochondrial gene, which combination of effects would you expect to see when doing a pedigree analysis of a family with LHON?

i. variable expressivity

ii. incomplete penetrance

iii. progressive blindness over time

iv. maternal inheritance

v. diminished muscle mass

A) i and ii only

B) ii and iii only

C) iii and iv only

D) i, ii, iii, and v only

E) i, ii, iii, and iv only

9

Myoclonal epilepsy and ragged red fiber disease (MERFF) is a human condition named for the ragged red fibers of its skeletal muscle cells and myoclonic epilepsy. Individuals with this disorder have a mutation in a mitochondrial gene for a tRNA, specifically that for lysine. Affected individuals are heteroplastic. Why?

A) Interference with translation slows protein formation and therefore maintenance of mutation-bearing organelles.

B) Having homoplastic organelles would no doubt be lethal due to curtailed translation.

C) Lysine is required in translation of every one of the mitochondrial genes.

D) Mutations of this gene affect individuals before birth.

E) Mutations of this gene are inherited as dominant characteristics.

B) Having homoplastic organelles would no doubt be lethal due to curtailed translation.

10

Some members of the species D. bifasciata produce mostly female offspring if reared at or below 21°C. The causative agent of this condition (called sex ratio) is a protozoan infection that is lethal to most male larvae. How can you demonstrate that it is both inherited and extrachromosomal?

A) Inject ooplasm of affected females into normal females and then mate these with normal males.

B) Inject cytoplasm from somatic cells of an affected female into normal females and then mate them with normal males.

C) Mate affected females with normal males and assess daughter somatic cells for presence of the protozoan.

D) Perform reciprocal crosses of affected and normal individuals and examine the offspring for infection.

E) Perform reciprocal crosses of affected and normal individuals and look for affected male offspring.

A) Inject ooplasm of affected females into normal females and then mate these with normal males.

11

In 1918, the tsar and tsarina of Russia and their five children were presumably assassinated and buried in an unmarked grave. Later, several women came forward and claimed that they were in fact Anastasia, one of the daughters whose bones had not been found. More recently, forensic scientists have extracted DNA, including mtDNA, from the skeletal remains. Which of the following samples of mtDNA had to be analyzed to discern which, if any, of the claimants was Anastasia?

A) the tsar, tsarina, and the other assassinated children

B) each of the claimants or their living children

C) the tsarina and the claimants

D) the tsar and tsarina only

E) the tsar and tsarina and living relatives of each of them

C) the tsarina and the claimants

12

A consequence of organelle heredity is that sequence changes in mtDNA vary more than nuclear DNA in response to reduction in population size. Which of the following does this imply about human evolutionary history?

A) Current human populations must have a much higher mutation rate than ancient populations.

B) Mitochondrial variants in people descending from originally small populations show enough diversity to be used to construct an evolutionary tree.

C) The original human population must have grown to be quite large before its members began migrating to other lands and other continents.

D) Nuclear gene sequencing must be used to resolve the question of human ancestral origins.

E) A single human population, living about 200,000 years ago, could not have given rise to all current human populations.

B) Mitochondrial variants in people descending from originally small populations show enough diversity to be used to construct an evolutionary tree.

13

Two databases, OMIM and Mitomap, are especially useful in exploring human mitochondrial mutations. If you are interested in learning whether aminoglycoside-induced deafness is inherited maternally, and what gene(s) is involved, which of the following would give you the most information?

A) the Mitomap position map with gene names

B) the sequence with specifically altered amino acid coding

C) the OMIM description of symptoms and diagnosis

D) the OMIM description of the TRMU gene at 22q13

E) the Mitomap loci of genes associated with deafness

E) the Mitomap loci of genes associated with deafness

14

In a cross between a petite yeast mutant and a wild-type strain, results showed some petite and some wild-type outcomes. Which of these statements must be true of this petite mutation?

A) It is suppressive.

B) It is a nuclear or segregational mutation.

C) It is a neutral mitochondrial mutation.

D) It replicates faster than wild type.

E) It has small deletions of mitochondrial DNA.

B) It is a nuclear or segregational mutation.

15

Chlamydomonas, although a green alga, is sensitive to an antibiotic, erythromycin. If mt- mating-type alga that is sensitive is mated with an mt+ cell that is resistant, and if the mt+ strain donates chloroplasts, what results do you expect and why?

A) All progeny are sensitive because this is the dominant trait.

B) Approximately half the progeny are sensitive because this is the recessive trait.

C) All the progeny are sensitive because this is the recessive trait.

D) All progeny are resistant because cpDNA is responsible.

E) Approximately half the progeny are sensitive because cpDNA is responsible.

D) All progeny are resistant because cpDNA is responsible.

16

Suppose there is (hypothetical) evidence that a gene in mice produces a substance that induces twitchiness in hind leg muscles. A female mouse of a true-breeding twitchy strain is mated with a male of a true-breeding non-twitchy strain. All progeny are twitchy. Which of these procedures would you use to provide evidence for your hypothesis that twitchiness is due to mtDNA?

A) sequence the mtDNA of the twitchy mother

B) breed twitchy male progeny with normal females to show no paternal inheritance

C) breed twitchy female with twitchy male F1mice to verify there is maternal inheritance

D) backcross twitchy female offspring with normal fathers

E) sequence the mtDNA of the twitchy male offspring

B) breed twitchy male progeny with normal females to show no paternal inheritance

17

The 16-kb mitochondrial genome encodes 13 proteins. How can there be more than 13 mitochondrially inherited conditions?

A) Some conditions are due to nuclear genes.

B) Many of the conditions are due to translation errors.

C) There are different kinds and numbers of mutations per gene.

D) Each parent may contribute different mutations.

E) Exon shuffling allows different polypeptides to form.

C) There are different kinds and numbers of mutations per gene.

18

Organisms have been created by nuclear transfer cloning, in which a diploid nucleus from a somatic cell of an adult animal is injected into an enucleated egg cell to create an embryo. Among the many species thus cloned, there has been a prevalence of mitochondrial defects. Which of the following is a most likely explanation?

A) The transferred nucleus may destroy the egg mitochondria.

B) The egg cell may be heteroplastic before injection.

C) The somatic cell's mitochondria may have been transferred as well.

D) The transferred nucleus may have mutations that alter mitochondrial function.

E) The egg nucleus may have had one or more mutations that alter mitochondrial function.

D) The transferred nucleus may have mutations that alter mitochondrial function.

19

You are a genetic counselor working with a phenotypically normal young couple who have been referred because the wife has a family history of a mitochondrial disorder that results in considerable dysfunction. What is the most important consideration you can suggest?

A) to refrain from having children that are hers biologically

B) that she be tested to find out what percentage of her mitochondria bear the mutation

C) that both husband and wife have mtDNA testing for the sequence in question

D) that her affected mother's DNA be tested

E) that they consider having only sons

B) that she be tested to find out what percentage of her mitochondria bear the mutation

20

In any mammal, the phenotype for a mitochondrial trait is based on what maternal characteristic?

Answer: genotype

21

Is the rate of mutation in mitochondrial DNA of mammals greater or less than that of the species' nuclear DNA?

Answer: greater than

22

Allan Wilson showed that the mtDNA of Africans is more diverse than that of other human populations. Does this finding provide evidence for the multiregional (MRE) model or the recent African origin (RAO) model?

Answer: RAO

23

Mitochondrial genome transcription, translation, and replication occur where?

Answer: (in the mitochondrial) matrix

24

In one or two words, give two characteristics of mitochondrial genomes.

Answer: Any two of the following:

circular

no histones/chromatin

anchored (to the mitochondrial membrane)

variable in size

25

What name is given to the alteration of an RNA sequence after transcription?

Answer: RNA editing

26

Do the protein-coding parts of organelle genes more closely resemble those of Bacteria (Eubacteria) or Archaea?

Answer: Bacteria

27

What are the closest "relatives" of chloroplasts still found as free-living organisms today?

Answer: cyanobacteria

28

Sequencing of genomes of eukaryotes, both mitochondrial and nuclear, have revealed evidence of sequence transfer from one to the other. Are such transfers ancient, recent, or both?

Answer: both

29

If a chloroplast coding sequence has been transferred to the nuclear genome, but the protein product is needed in the chloroplast, what must be added to the original polypeptide sequence?

Answer: signal sequence

30

Among the discoveries that Correns and Bauer (1908) made in plants was that, sometimes, reciprocal crosses resulted in what phenotype only?

Answer: maternal

31

When a cell divides, chloroplasts are randomly distributed. What is this called?

Answer: replicative segregation

32

Three of the four modes of inheritance of organelle genes are

  • maternal inheritance as in mammals
  • paternal inheritance as in gymnosperms
  • selective degradation of one source during mating.

What is the fourth?

Answer: biparental inheritance

33

What number of membranes is typical of both mitochondria and chloroplasts, and which of them anchors the organelle's genome?

Answer: 2; inner

34

The protein-coding genes of chloroplasts are involved in what part of photosynthesis?

Answer: oxidative phosphorylation

35

DNA transfer has occurred many times between organelle and nuclear genomes. Two pairs of sequences are analyzed. Pair A has more similarities than pair B. Which of these is the most ancient transfer?

Answer: Pair B

36

Variation in numbers of mutated chloroplast genomes can give rise to green, white, or variegated leaves. What color leaves do you expect in offspring of pollen from a white-leafed plant and ovules from a green-leafed plant?

Answer: green

37

In mammals, the number of mitochondria per cell is highly variable. Which of the following would have the largest number: skin cells, red blood cells, or skeletal muscle cells?

Answer: skeletal muscle (cells)

38

Mating in Chlamydomonas occurs between haploid mt+ and mt- individuals. The mt- chloroplast genome is selectively degraded 95% of the time. In one such mating, the mt+ genome is strR and mt- is strS. Will offspring live or die if they are exposed to streptomycin?

Answer: live

39

In plants, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is maternally inherited due to mutations in mitochondria. However, these can revert to normal due to a nuclear gene for restoration of fertility (RF). The recessive rf/rf condition does not restore fertility. If the female parent of a male plant is CMS rf/rf and the male parent is normal (N) Rf/Rf, will male progeny be sterile or fertile?

Answer: fertile

40

Any form of inheritance that does not follow Mendelian patterns and that involves most of the cytoplasm being contributed to the embryo by one of the parents is called ________.

Answer: extrachromosomal (inheritance)

41

The organelles involved in organelle heredity are ________ and ________.

Answer: chloroplast, mitochondria (either order)

42

If a cell includes a mixture of variable numbers of wild-type and mutant organelles, this condition is known as ________.

Answer: heteroplasmy

43

Mitochondrial mutations in mammals are passed to the offspring by the ________ parent.

Answer: female or maternal

44

In the 1950s, mitochondrial genomes were discovered by differential staining for ________.

Answer: DNA