Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture Exam 4 Flashcards


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1

What percentage of cortical nephrons are in the kidneys?

A. 85%

B. 80%

C. 90%

D. 75%

E. 95%

A. 85%

2

What plays an important role in the kidneys ability to produce concentrated urine?

A. juxamedullary nephrons

B. cortical nephrons

C. renal tubules

D. peritubilar capillaries

E. glomerulus

A. juxamedullary nephrons

3

What cell lies between the arterioles and the tubule cells and are interconnected by gap junctions?

A. granular cells

B. extraglamercular mesangial cells

C. macula densa

D. vasa recta

E. pronehros

B. extraglamercular mesangial cells

4

What is the lowest concentration of nitrogenous waste occurs in _____________

A. hepatic vein

B. inferior vena cava

C. renal artery

D. renal vein

D. renal vein

5

The glomerular capillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body because they ___________

A. have a larger area of anastomosis

B. are derived from and drain into arterioles

C. are not made of endothelium

D. are sites of filtrated formation

B. are derived from and drain into arterioles

6

Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the _______

A. glomerular capsules

B. distal convulted tubules

C. collecting ducts

D. proximal convulted tubules

C. collecting ducts

7

Which is reabsorbed by proximal convoluted tubules cells __________

A. Na+

B. k+

C. amino acid

D. all of the above

D. all of the above

8

Glucose is not normally found in the urine because it?

A. does not pass through the walls of the glomerulus

B. is kept in the blood by colloid osmotic pressure

C. is reabsorbed by the tubule cells

D. is removed by the cells before the blood reaches the kidney

C. is reabsorbed by the tubule cells

9

Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely related to?

A. water reabsorption

B. capsular hydrostatic pressure

C. arterial blood pressure

D. acidity of the urine

B. capsular hydrostatic pressure

10

Tubular reabsorption

A. of glucose and many other substances is a Tm-limited active transport process

B. of chloride is always linked to the passive transport of Na+

C. is the movement of substances from the blood into the nephrons

D. of sodium occurs only in the proximal tubules

A. of glucose and many other substances is a Tm-limited active transport process

11

If a freshly voided urine sample contains excessive amount of urochrome it has ________.

A. an ammonia-like odor

B. a pH below normal

C. a dark yellow color

D. a pH above normal

C. a dark yellow color

12

Conditions such as diabetes mellitus and starvation are closely linked to?

A. ketonuria

B. pyuria

C. albuminuria

D. hematuria

A ketonuria

13

Which of the following are true about ADH?

A. it promotes obligatory water reabsorption

B. it is secreted in response to an increase in extracellular fluid osmolality

C. it causes insertion of aquaporin in PCT

D. it promotes Na+ reabsorption

E. none of the above

B. it is secreted in response to an increase in extracellular fluid osmolality

14

Body water content is greatest in _______

A. infants

B. young adults

C. elderly adults

D. young children

E. middle age adults

A. infants

15

Potassium magnesium and phosphate ions are the predominant electrolytes in _________.

A. plasma

B. interstitial fluid

C. intracellular fluid

D. urine

E. Blood

C. intracellular fluid

16

Sodium balance is regulated primarily by control of amount __________.

A. ingested

B. excreted in urine

C. lost in perspiration

D. lost in feces

E. liquid intake

B. excreted in urine

17

Water balance is regulated by control of amounts _____________.

A. ingested

B. excreted in urine

C. lost in perspiration

D. lost in feces

E. liquid intake

B. excreted in urine

18

Two main substances regulated by the influence of aldosterone on the kidney tubules ________________.

A. potassium, sodium

B. bicarbonate, calcium

C. chloride, sodium

D. water, magnesium

E. potassium, bicarbonate

A. potassium, sodium

19

Two substances regulated by parathyroid hormones?

A. ammonium ions, hydrogen ions

B. calcium, phosphate

C. chloride, sodium

D. water, magnesium

E. potassium, bicarbonate

B. calcium, phosphate

20

Two substance secreted into the proximal convoluted tubules in exchange for sodium ions ____________.

A. chloride, calcium

B. bicarbonate, magnesium

C. potassium, water

D. ammonium ions, hydrogen ions

E. chloride, sodium

D. ammonium ions, hydrogen ions

21

Part of an important chemical buffer system in plasma?

A. potassium

B. bicarbonate

C. phosphate

D. sodium

E. calcium

B. bicarbonate

22

Two ions produced during catabolism of glutamine?

A. ammonium ions, bicarbonate

B. calcium, chloride

C. potassium, sodium

D. magnesium, phosphate

E. water, chloride

A. ammonium ions, bicarbonate

23

Substances regulated by ADH's effects on the renal tubules ____________

A. sodium

B. calcium

C. magnesium

D. water

E. potassium

D. water

24

Which of the following factors will enhance ADH release?

A. increase in ECF volume

B. decrease in ECF volume

C. decrease in ECF osmolality

D. increase in ECF osmolality

E. decrease in both ECF volume and osmolality

B. decrease in ECF volume

25

The pH of blood varies directly with ________.

A. HCO3

B. PcO2

C. H+

D. HCo+

E. none of the above

A. HCO3

26

In an individual with metabolic acidosis a clue that the respiratory system is compensating is provided by_____________.

A. High blood bicarbonate levels

B. Low blood bicarbonate levels

C. Rapid deep breathing

D. Slow, shallow breathing

E. None of the above

C. Rapid deep breathing

27

The primary sex organ in males are?

A. testes

B. gametes

C. prostate

D. Sperm

E. ovaries

A. testes

28

The primary sex organ in females are?

A. ovaries

B. epididymis

C. ureter

D. pubis

E.peritoneum

A. ovaries

29

The urethra is a duct that_____________.

A. expel both urine & semen

B. contains spongy tissue

C. contains seminal glands

D. cleans bladder

E. both B&C

A. expel both urine & semen

30

The location of the prostate is ______________.

A. inferior to the bladder

B. superior to the intestines

C. next to the gall bladder

D. superior to the spine

E. both C &D

A. inferior to the bladder

31

Functions of the bulbourethral gland is to _____________.

A. lubricate glans penis

B. release urine

C. stimulate the nerves in the testes

D. activate prostate

E. crinites RBC’s

A. lubricate glans penis

32

Chromosomes for males & females are?

A. (XX,) (XY)

B. (YY) (XX)

C. (YX) (XY)

D. none of the above

E. Both B & C

A. (XX,) (XY)

33

What is semen?

A. Fluid that promotes reproduction

B. lymphocyte fluid

C. sperm ATP

D. kidney fluid

E. Both C & D

A. Fluid that promotes reproduction

34

Erectile dysfunction is a homeostatic imbalance due to ___________.

A. deficient release of NO

B. lack of vitamin K

C. due to diabetes

D. prostate malfunction

E. bacterial infection

A. deficient release of NO

35

What percentage of males in America over the ages of 40 have erectile dysfunction?

A. 50%

B. 25%

C. 0%

D. 85%

E. 99%

A. 50%

36

How many sperm(s) enter a female egg?

A. 1

B. 100

C. 10

D. 1,000

E. 10,000

A. 1

37

How many women are diagnosed with cervical cancer worldwide?

A. 450,000

B. 500,000

C. 70,000

D. 1,000

E. 750,000

A. 450,000

38

STD’s are contracted by __________________?

A. sexual contact

B. air

C. undeveloped countries

D. saliva

E. Both B &D

A. sexual contact

39

Most common STI in America?

A. Chlamydia

B. syphilis

C. genital warts

D. gonorrhea

E. Trichomoniasis

A. chlamydia

40

The term hypotonic hydration refers to _____________?

A. the feeling one might have after a long swim

B. the unpleasant feeling people have after drinking too much alcohol

C. a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amount of water

D. a condition that is caused by high levels of sodium in the extracellular fluid compartment

C. a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amount of water

41

The urinary bladder is composed of ____________ epithelium.

A. transitional

B. simple squamous

C. stratified squamous

D. pseudostratisfied columnar

A. transitional

42

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma protein. This problem is often characterized by _____________.

A. Tissue edema

B. Extreme weight loss

C. Extreme weight gain

D. Nerve damage

A. tissue edema

43

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body is that it ________.

A. has a basement membrane

B. is impermeable to most substances

C. is drained by an efferent arterioles

D. has a blood pressure much lower that other organ systems

C. is drained by an efferent arteriole

44

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluids?

A. Antidiuretic hormone

B. Erythropoietin

C. aldosterone

D. renin

C. aldosterone

45

Select the correct statement about ureters

A. Ureters contain sphincters at the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine

B. the epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch

C. The ureter are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

D. The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve ending only

C. the ureter are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

46

Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salt in the body?

A.neuromuscular activity

B. membrane permeability

C. secretory activity

D. anabolism of proteins

D. anabolism of proteins

47

The functional and structural unit of the kidney is the __________.

A. nephron

B. loop of Henie

C. glomerular capsule

D. basement membrane of the capillaries

A. nephron

48

Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most _______ is found in the intracellular fluid.

A.iron

B. chloride

C. Potassium

D. magnesium

C. potassium