Urinary System Flashcards


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1

What are the end products of metabolism?

CO2

Nitrogenous waste

Water

2

What are Nitrogenous wastes

The end products of protein, creatinine, phosphate and nucleic acid metabolism

3

Nitrogenous waste includes the following

Urea

Creatinine

Uric acid

4

What is Urea and how is it produced?

Most abundant organic waste

Produced from breakdown of aa. Deamination leads to ammonia production. Ammonia is v. toxic and converted to urea which is less toxic by the liver

5

How is creatinine generated?

by skeletal muscle through the breakdown of creatinine phosphate for energy

6

How is Uric acid generated?

It is derived from the nitrogenous bases of RNA molecles

7

What materials are excreted through the urinary system

End products of metabolism (CO2, Nitrogenous wastes and water) and ANY substance which is in excess of body needs

8

Why does excretion play a major role in homeostasis?

It maintains the proper concentration for body fluids

9

What does the urinary system do?

Responsible for bulk of all other excretion except for CO2

10

What organs make up the urinary system

Kidneys

Ureters

Bladder

Urethra

11

Where is urine formed

The Kidneys

12

What do the ureters do?

Muscular tubes that transport urine

13

What does the bladder do?

Stores urine

14

Why is the bladder able to stretch?

Transitional epithelium

15

What does the urethra do?

Muscular tube, transports urine from bladder to outside

16

What are the functions of the kidney (6)

Regulate composition and volume of blood directly, other body fluids indirectly

Excrete waste from blood

Regulate urethral pyosis by releasing urethra pyotin

Aid in regulating pH

Regulate blood pressure by releasing renin which activates the angeotensin system

Assist liver w/ detoxification, deamination and glyconeogenis

17

What is the external anatomy of the kidney

Large bean shape w/ hilus (indentation) where ureters exit

Made up of 3 layers of tissue

18

What are the 3 layers of kidney tissue?

Renal capsule

Adipose capsule

Renal fascia

19

What is the renal capsule and what does it do?

Innermost layer of the kidney

Protects against infection and kidney

20

What is the adipose capsule and what does it do?

Middle layer

Consists of fatty tissue

Cushions against shock an anchors kiney

21

What is the Renal fascia and what does it do?

Outter layer

Consists of thin connective tissue

Anchors kidney to body wall and also surrounds adrenal gland

22

What 2 layers make up the inside of the kidney?

Medulla

Cortex

23

What is the medulla?

Innermost layer of kidney, made up of 5-14 pyramids

24

What is the renal papillae?

Broad base of pyramid that faces out

25

Where is your loop of Henle found?

Medulla

26

What is the cortex?

Outter layer of the internal kidney, most nephrons are found here

27

What areas go from the pyramids to the ureter?

Pyramid -> minor calyx -> major calyx -> renal pelvis -> ureter

28

What is the functional unit of the kidney and what does it do?

Nephron, site of urine formation

29

Name the parts of a nephron

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

Proximal convoluted tubule

Loop of Henle

Distal convoluted tubule

Collecting ducts

30

What do the glomerular capsules do?

Filter

31

Name the 2 layers of the glomerular capsule and their epithelial type

Outter - perietal cup - squamous epithelium

Inner - visceral layer - podocytes

32

What are podocytes?

Special epithelial cells with filtration slits to filter plasma

33

What lines the proximal convoluted tubule?

Microvilli

34

What part of the nephron is heavily surrounded by capillaries?

Distal convoluted tubule

35

There is one duct for each nephron T of F

F

Several nephrons will empty in to 1 duct

36

What are the 2 types of nephrons?

Cortical

Juxtamedullary

37

Describe a cortical nephron

Glomerular lie in the outter region of cortex

No loop of Henle

Don't dip into medullary area

Make up about 85% of nephrons

38

Describe a juxtamedullary nephron

Glomerular lie in cortex close to pyramid

Have loop of Henle which penetrates deep into pyramid

Major role is water balance (osmotic gradient)

39

Describe the vascular pathway in the kidney

Renal artery -> segmental arteries -> lobar arteries -> Interlobar arteries -> arcuate arteries -> interlobular arteries -> afferent arterioles -> glomerulus -> efferent arterioles -> peritubular capillary beds

40

What is a renal plexus?

Nerve supply for kidney, has a capillary network that surrounds loop of Henle calle vasa recta

41

What are the 3 different processes for urine formation

Filtration

Reabsorption

Secretion

42

What makes the glomerular best for filtration?

It is very permeable, open pores, no cell, basement membrane, surface area is very large, has a high blood pressure

43

Why is the blood pressure high in the gloerulus?

The efferent arterial is smaller in diameter than the afferent

And the osmotic pressure in the unfiltered blood pulls fluid back into glomerulus

44

What is the standard measurement for the glomerular filtration rate?

Insulin

It can be varied by regulating glomeruler pressure

45

What is the initial composition of filtrate

Same as plasma, minus plasma proteins

46

Where does reabsorption primarily occure

Proximal convoluted tubule

47

What is more selective, filtration or reabsorption?

reabsorption

48

How much glucose and aa are reclaimed?

How much urea?

Almost always 100%

50%

49

What is the threshold value?

Concentration in the plasma must be exceeded before it appears in the urine

50

Where does secretion mostly occur?

Distal conveluted tubuel

51

What is micturitiion

urination

52

How is water lost from the body?

Kidneys, skin (sweat), lungs, GI tract

53

What are the 2 main fluid compartments?

Intracellular (fluid w/i the cells)

Extracellular (fluid outside of the cells)

54

What are the 2 divisions of extracellular fluid?

Interstitial Fluid

Plasma

55

What is the relationship between Na and water reabsorption?

water follows Na that is reabsorbed in the proximal convaluted tubule

56

How does aldosterone affect Na?

Produced by adrenal cortex, causes kidney tubules (especially distal portion) to increase Na transport thus increases Na reabsorption

57

How does the atrial natriuretic factor affect Na?

Realesed by atrial myocardial cells. inhibits renin, modifies activity of angiotensin system, which reduces aldosterone, reducing sodium, reducing water retention and reducing bloo pressure

58

How do juxtamedullary cells affect blood pressure?

They are cells close to glomerular

They decrease blood supply to kidneys where renin is produced which increases tensinogen, angiotensin 1 and 2 which constricts arteriols and increases blood pressure

59

3 hormones release by kidney

Renin

Urethropyotin

calcitrial

60

What happens to urine if there is execs water?

What if the boy is dehydrated?

Diluted urine

Concentrated urine

61

Where does most water reabsorption occur?

Proximal tubules

62

Describe the urine as it travels the Loop of Henle

Entering the descending limb - isotonic to plasma

Moving down the descending limb it becomes more concentrated

Moving up the ascending limb begins to loose concentration because chloride is transported out and Na follows, water stays behind

63

Where does some urea diffuse out?

lower portion of collecting duct

64

What is the role of the vasa recta?

Maintains the medullary concentration gradient developed by the loop of Henle

65

T/F the vasa recta carries salts away

F, the salts dilute into an out of the vasa recta

66

What does ADH control?

The amount of water reabsorbed from collecting ducts

67

What releases ADH

nurohypophysis

68

Does ADH cause urine to be more concentrated or diluted?

Concentrated

69

80% of the total water reabosorption occurs in the _____. The ______ system is responsible for the remaining amount

proximal convoluted tubules

counter-current-ADH

70

The transport of ___ and ___ from the ascending loop creates an osmotic gradient in the ___. This gradient is enhanced by the reabsorption of ___ in the collecting ducts.

chloride and sodium

interstitial fluid

Urea

71

The ___ maintains the concentration gradient established by removing the water reabsorbed from the ___.

Vasa recta

collecting duct

72

What regulates the permeability of the collecting duct?

ADH

73

What type of urine is produced when the tubule is permeable?

What if the tubule is not permeable?

hypertonic to plasma

hypotonic to plasma, copious amounts

74

What do electrolytes affect?

water movement, pH, enzyme activity and osmotic pressure

75

How does chloride affect osmotic pressure?

Indirectly, it is regulated by aldostorone and attracted to Na

76

What is the most abundant cation in ICF?

Potassium

77

What regulates calcium and phosphate?

endochrine glands

78

What increases magnesium excretion?

Increase levels of aldostorone

79

what is respiratory alkalosis?

pH leads to hyperventalation

80

What is metabolic alkalosis?

Increase in pH an bicarbonate levels

81

What is alkalosis?

pH in arteriole blood is greater than 7.45

82

What is aciosis

When pH is 7.0-7.35

83

What does respiratory acidosis lead to?

CO2 retention

84

What does metabolic acidosis do?

decrease in pH brings bicarbonate levels down

85

What are the 3 major chemical buffers?

Bicarbonate

phosphate

protein

86

What is diabetes insipidus?

ADH is absent or low, little to no water is reabsorbe

87

What is glomerulonephritis?

Inflammation of glomeruli. Inflammatory response leads to blockage of many nephrons

88

What are kidney stones?

crystals formed in renal pelvis, may pass down ureter to bladder and cause pain and/or block urine

89

What is cystitis?

Inflammation of bladder

90

What happens in dialysis?

blood is passed through a tube which allows the movement of urea and other small molecules out but blocks proteins and blood cells. Tube runs through a bath which contains the proper concentration of glucose and vitamins

91

What happens with age?

decrease in GFR

renal blood flow decreases

decrease in concentration of urine in tubules

increased volumes of urine and frequency of urination

92

What is edema

accumulation of fluid in interstitial space, leading to swelling

93

What is thirst promoted by?

decrease in saliva

decrease in plasma osmolaity

increase in plasma volume