Bio 2 Final Review Flashcards


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1

While working in a summer job in a museum, you encounter a drawer containing specimens with labels indicating that they belong to a new species of the genus Pseudonymous . The species has not yet been named, so you gather data from the specimens and write a formal description of the species, and give the species the name Pseudonymous neonominatus . You are engaging in...

taxonomy

2

Which grouping is a taxon?

genus, phylum, domain, (all of the above)

3

Which is the correct species name for humans?

Homo sapiens

4

If properly assembled, which taxon ought to be a clade?

class, supergroup, order (all the above)

5

Which tree is considered worst by the criterion of parsimony?

the one with the least steps (least arrows)

6

Molecular clocks are based on..

neutral mutations on the molecular level accumulate at an approximately constant rate in an evolutionary lineage

7

How does the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer muddle the concept of monophyletic groups?

monophyletic groups are based on the concept that particular group of species descended from a common ancestor. When horizontal gene transfer occurs, not all of the genes in a species ere inherited from the common ancestors

8

Convergent evolution results in..

none of the above (synapomorphies, symplesiomorphies, molecular homologies, anatomical homologies )

9

During which eon did life emerge?

Archaen

10

You use radiometric dating to test the rock layer that a fossil was found in to determine its age. You find that 150 mol of lead-207 are present alongside 10nmol of uranium-235. How old is the fossil?

approximately 2.84 billion years

11

What are stromatolites?

layered structures of cyanobacteria and calcium carbonate, both living and fossilzed

12

Which organism is most likely to end up in the fossil record?

a populous snail species found in coastal habitat

13

Which environmental factor has stayed approximately constant since the formation of earth?

none of the above (climate / temperature, atmospheric oxygen, position of continents)

14

What is the leading hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes?

endocytosis in which an archer engulfed an retained a bacterium, ultimately resulting in endosymbiosis and modern eukaryotes

15

Prior to the current position of the continents, most land was position in such a manner that two supercontinents existed, these were known as...

Laurasian and Gondwana

16

Use the following data to answer the questions below: in a population of four–o’clock plants, you count 20 red–flowered individuals (homozygous for the red flower allele), 360 pink– flowered individuals (heterozygotes) and 1620 white–flowered individuals (homozygous for the white–flower allele).

What is the allele frequency of the white flower allele?

0.900

17

Use the following data to answer the questions below: in a population of four–o’clock plants, you count 20 red–flowered individuals (homozygous for the red flower allele), 360 pink– flowered individuals (heterozygotes) and 1620 white–flowered individuals (homozygous for the white–flower allele).

What should the genotype frequency of the red-flowered individuals in the population be, if the population is in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium?

0.01

18

Use the following data to answer the questions below: in a population of four–o’clock plants, you count 20 red–flowered individuals (homozygous for the red flower allele), 360 pink– flowered individuals (heterozygotes) and 1620 white–flowered individuals (homozygous for the white–flower allele).

How many red-flowered individuals should the population have, if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?

card image

20

19

Which condition of the hardy-weinberg equilibrium model is being violated?

None. (natural sel. is occuring, genetic drift is occuring, mating is nonrandom)

20
  1. Life is thought to have originated in four overlapping stages. What is the correct sequence of these stages?
    1. Polymerization into larger molecules.
    2. Polymers enclosed in membranes acquired cellular properties.
    3. Polymers became enclosed in membranes.
    4. Prebiotic production of nucleotides and amino acids.

4, 1, 3, 2

21

Which macromolecule has been proposed to be the first to be found in protobionts due to its ability to store information, catalyze chemical reactions, and potential for self-replication?

RNA

22

Miller & Urey's experiments, involving a combination of CH4, H2O, H2, and NH3, and electrical charges, were a test of which hypothesis for the formation of organic molecules on the early earth?

reducing atmosphere hypothesis

23

What is true of a fossil that is classified as a "transitional form" ?

it has some of the traits of its ancestors an some of the traits of its descendants

24

An important message from the work of Malthus that influenced Charles Darwin was..

only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce

25

what scenario best illustrates the process of natural selection?

a population of mosquitoes develops resistance to a pesticide

26

Genes encoding the alpha polypeptide chains and the gamma polypeptide chain of the blood protein hemoglobin are derived from a common gene ancestor and both proteins occur in humans (Homo sapiens) as well as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). The sequence similarity between the alpha chain gene and the gamma chain gene would best be described as __________, while the sequence similarity of each gene in comparison between humans and chimpanzees would be best described as _____________.

paralogous ; orthologous

27

What mechanism leads to changes in allele frequencies due to random sampling bias?

genetic drift

28

which phenomenon tends to increase genetic variation in a population, while also tending to decrease the genetic variation among populations?

gene flow

29

Under the ___________, species are identified based on their unique habitat requirements

ecological species concept

30

Which scenario is likely to result in sympatric divergence ?

All of the above scenarios

31

which of the following situations would be most likely to produce a new species?

A group of polyploid individuals arises by an abnormal mitosis. The polyploids can only produce viable offspring by mating with each other.

32

A population of mountain goats are split because of the formation of a glacier. After 500 years, the glacier melts and the 2 goat populations are free to move between the 2 areas. Under what conditions might a hybrid zone occur?

reproductive isolation is incomplete

33

How would you best explain the correlation between an increase in Hox genes and an increase in animal body complexity?

An increase in the number of Hox genes allows for greater specialization in different body regions.

34

The idea that most of the genetic variation found in populations is not subject to natural selection is the basis of:

the neutral theory of evolution

35

When a species consisting of a single large population slowly evolves over many generations into a single new species, this an example of

anagenesis

36

A group which includes a common ancestor and all of the species that were derived from it would be called a...

clade

37

Can two different species that are members of the same clade have more than one common ancestor? Choose the MOST correct answer and explanation.

Yes. Although two species in the same clade have only one most recent common ancestor, they also have a number of older common ancestors that occurred earlier in their evolutionary history.

38

The early Earth atmosphere is thought to have lacked which of the following gases?

O2

39

Protobionts are thought to be the first nonliving structures that evolved into living cells. A critical characteristic of a protobiont that is found in both modern day prokaryotes and eukaryotes is

a boundary membrane that separates external from internal environments

40

chemical selection occurs...

when a chemical within a mixture has increased compared to other chemicals in the picture due to a unique property

41

The phenomenon in which one region of the body grows faster than another among different species is called...

heterochrony

42

An important shift in thought that preceded Darwin’s development of evolutionary theory was...

the increased acceptance of evidence of uniformitarianism in the field of geology

43

which population is least likely to experience adaptation?

organisms which reproduce by asexual reproduction and have low DNA replication error rates

44

Which eon preceded organisms?

Hadean

45

Which grouping is most inclusive?

domain

46

Which period did not end coincident with a major mass extinction event?

Silurian

47

In comparing the development of the unwebbed foot of the chicken and webbed foot of a duck, what differences are there in the expression of BMP4 and gremlin?

environmental changes can lead to the modification of traits

48

Which is not a cellular form found in eukaryotes?

All of the above (unicellular, colonial, filamentous, multicellularity)

49

which domain contains the organism which resulted in chloroplasts?

bacteria

50

which phylum contains the organism which resulted in mitochondria ?

proteobacteria

51

why is "protista" no longer considered a valid taxon?

that grouping of organisms is paraphyletic

52

what is the function of a heterocyte?

nitrogen fixation

53

which is true regarding ester bonds in phospholipids?

ester bonds are a character common to both Bacteria and Eukarya

54

what is the significance of ether bonds in phospholipids?

help Archaea to resist extreme environments

55

which character is common to bacteria and eukarya?

ester linkages

56

what is the term for thin, thread-like, flexible spiral shaped bacterial cells?

spirochetes

57

A bacterium which is pink following a correctly performed Gram-staining procedure is..

Gram-negative and has a thin layer of peptidoglycan

58

bacteria which can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen are called

aerotolerant anaerobes or facultative anaerobes

59

which supergroup includes members which have a feeding groove in cell surface?

excavata

60

which supergroup includes members which have hairy flagella?

stramenopila

61

a plastid with 4 membranes suggests that it originated by ..

tertiary endosymbiosis

62

Gametophytes produce..

gametes by mitosis

63

which is not a common feature of archaea and eukarya?

no answer ; histone, ribosomal proteins, DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases are all common features

64

You perform a Gram stain on isolates taken from several patients. Which isolate do you recommend be treated using penicillin?

Gram-positve bacillus

65

which group has members involved in nitrogen fixation?

cyanobacteria and proteobacteria

66

cyanobacteria have which type of nutrition?

photoautotrophic

67

which is not one of Koch's postulates?

DNA sequence of the isolate must be deposited in GenBank as a reference sample

68

Which supergroup includes members which have saclike membranous vesicles under the cell membrane?

Alveolata

69

which supergroup includes members which typically have filose pseudopodia?

none (excavata, opisthokonta, alveolata, stramenopila)

70

the clade that includes only the land plants and their closest green algal relative is ..

streptophyta

71

which phylum has double fertilization?

Anthophyta

72

which character is not an adaptation to life on land of all land plants ?

none of the above

73

in which phylum is the sporophyte generation dominant ?

Lycophyta

74

which phylum has seeds?

none (hepatophyta, anthocerophyta, lycophyta, pteridophyta)

75

which whorl and flower structures are not correctly matched?

androceium - carpels / pistils

76

Which is a symplesiomorphy (shared primitive character) of Kingdom Plantae?

plasmodesmata

77

which is diploid?

sporangia

78

which is not a character adapted for dispersal ?

all of the above (seeds, spores, pollen, fruits)

79

if you view a rose bush without flowers, you are seeing the..

sporophyte

80

in which phylum would you expect to find vascular tissue?

lycophyta

81

which mechanism does not increase genetic diversity?

gametogenesis

82

which phylum would you be least likely to encounter during your live-action role playing of Lawrence of Arabian in the Arabian Desert?

Hepatophyta

83

Which phylum’s members contributed to global cooling resulting in a reduction of its own suitable habitat and species numbers and permitting the rise of species groups better suited to a drier habitat and climate, thereby ending the Carboniferous period?

Pteridophyta

84

plants permitted which of the following ?

development of soil, and colonization of land by animals

85

which is a symplesiomorphy of the seed-bearing plant?

vascular tissue

86

which phylum of spermatophytes is the most diverse in terms of number of existing species?

Anthophyta

87

which group of gymnosperms is the most diverse in terms of number of existing species?

Coniferophyta

88

If you see a plant with six petals, six stamens and three carpels, what other characters would you expect to observe on the plant?

one cotyledon

89

which class of secondary plant compounds contributes to preventing UV damage?

phenolics

90

which class of secondary plant compounds contributes to preventing damage from animal herbivory by affecting the nervous system of animals ?

alkaloids

91

clusters of flowers are known as..

inflorescences

92

the pollen-receptive structure of a flower is the ..

stigma

93

which group co-evolved and diversified in conjunction with land plants?

fungi, insects, vertebrates (all of the above)

94

which group is least diverse in extant species?

Ginkgophyta

95

the alternation of generations seen in plants is also known as a

sporic life cycle

96

you obtain spores from a fern and plant them where they can germinate and grow into a ..

gametophyte

97

Movement by alternating contractions of longitudinal and circular muscles against the antagonistic action of a coelom acting as a hydrostatic skeleton is typical of...

Annelida

98

Spiral cleavage would be expected to be observed in..

rotifera, bryozoa, arthropoda (all of the above)

99

which pair of clades and synapomorphies are mismatched?

none of the above

100

tagmatization is observed in ...

Arthropoda

101

Metamerism is observed in...

Arthropoda and annelida

102

which clade has flagella but lacks cell walls?

cryptomycota

103

what is characteristic of the AM fungi ?

endomycorrhizal mutualistic symbiotic relationships with plants

104

Sexual reproduction in fungi may include a delay between karyogamy and plasmogamy, during which time fungal cells are...

heterokaryotic

105

which taxon is acoelomate?

turbellaria

106

which pair is most closely related?

Arthropoda and Nematoda

107

what characteristic would not be likely associated with the Bilateria?

diploblasty

108

Which character would likely appear earliest in the evolution of the Bilateria?

cephalization

109

Which set of characters are likely to be observed in Polyplacophora?

determinate development and spiral cleavage

110

for which clade is the mushroom the typical fruiting body?

basidiomycota

111

which clade is implicated in the worldwide decline in amphibian populations?

Chytridiomycota

112

which clade is least likely to experience nitrogen limitation?

cryptomycota

113

which clades share most recent common ancestry?

echinodermata and chordata

114

which is not a synapomorphy of Vertebrata?

no answer (hollow nerve cord, notochord, arch & slits, radial cleavage are all symplesiomorphies)

115

For which taxon is the water vascular system a synapomorphy?

echinodermata

116

which clade does not exhibit tagmatization?

myriapoda

117

a hydrostatic skeleton is present in...

nematoda and annelida

118

which is a synapomorphy of phylum mollusca?

radula

119

which is a member of the Lophotrochozoa?

bryozoa

120

which is the sister group to Metazoa?

Choanomonada

121

Which is not characteristic of animalia?

muticellularity, extracellular matrix, and chemoheterotrophy are all characteristics of animalia

122

which share most recent common ancestry?

rotifera and platyhelminthes

123

in which group would you expect to find mesoderm?

annelida

124

A pseudocoelom and presence of longitudinal muscles with locomotion by sinusoidal thrashing is typical of...

nematoda

125

which supergroup is fungi classified as?

none of the above

126

Gas exchange is accomplished by simple diffusion across the body wall in...

platyhelminthes

127

an eye anatomically analogous to the vertebrate eye evolved in..

Cephalopoda

128

which is a member of Ammniota?

none of the above

129

which is a symplesiomorphy of chordata?

radial cleavage

130

which is a member of the clade tetrapods?

amphibia

131

which is not a member of the amniota?

amphibia

132

a 4-chambered heart is seen in..

mammalia, crocodilia, aves (all of the above)

133

which is not an adaptation to life on land?

buccal pumping

134

in which taxon would ommatidia be observed?

hexapoda

135

which is not a characteristic of Ctenophora?

cnidae

136

which pair of terms is mismatched?

asexual reproduction -- heterokaryotic

137

The comparison between Parazoa and Eumetazoa is best described by which of the following statements?

The various kinds of cells of Parazoa do not form permanent associations into tissues or organs whereas Eumetazoa possess true, stable tissues.

138

which ecological role/life history strategy is not observed among the fungi ?

primary producer

139

Traditional phylogenies based on morphology and modern phylogenies based on molecular data disagree on the phylogenetic informational value of which character for determining relationships among animal phyla?

acoelomate/ pseudocoelomate/ coelomate condition

140

If you conducted an experiment in which you took a complete animal and strained it through a fine-mesh cloth so that all its cells separated, then you placed all the cells together and they reunited to form a new animal, to which phylum would that animal likely belong? (This was an actual experiment.)

Phylum Porifera

141

Which character of Phylum Porifera is suggestive of evidence for relatedness with the protists thought to share most recent common ancestry with Animalia?

choanocyte

142

which group does not include phylum nematoda?

Lophotrochozoa

143

In which taxon is the absence of cephalization in adults a secondarily derived characteristic?

Crinoidea

144

Which vertebrate group would you expect to possess a full set of pharyngeal arches in the adult stage?

Petromyzontidae

145

which pair of clades has most recent common ancestry ?

Fungi & Nuclearia

146

which clade does not include phylum Chordata?

no answer (deuterostomia, metazoa, opisthokonta, eumetazoa all include chordata )

147

If two morphologically dissimilar organisms share a large proportion of similar genomic DNA, it suggests which of the following conclusions?

The two taxa are more closely related than previous conclusions based on morphology.

148

On average, which type of interaction would you expect to be relatively long in duration and to have high lethality?

parasitoids

149

On average, which type of interaction would you expect to be short in duration and to have low lethality?

herbivory

150

what is the most common life strategy?

parasitism

151

The type of species interaction between two species where one is positively affected and the other is not affected is referred to as an...

commensalism

152

The situation in which two noxious species evolve to closely resemble each other is...

Mullerian mimicry

153

"Lekking” is associated with which type of mating system?

polygyny

154

what is adiabatic cooling ?

Increasing elevation leads to a decrease in air pressure and cooling of air.

155

patterns of species change and succession are one focus of

community ecology

156

The biome one would expect to find with with rainfall typically 250-450 cm per year and with temperatures averaging approximately 20-30°C is...

tropical rainforest

157

The immediate causes of/ explanations for behaviors, such as increases in production of testosterone causing increases in aggression, are called __________ causes.

proximate

158

Lions in east African safari parks learn to ignore the presence of safari vehicles. This form of learning is

habituation

159

Pavlov’s experiments with ringing a bell while feeding dogs, resulting in the dogs salivating at the ringing of the bell, even in the absence of food, is an example of...

classical conditioning

160

Modifications of previous behavior based on experience represent

learning

161

The mate–guarding hypothesis is an explanation for...

monogamy

162

Optimal foraging as a form of efficient behavior would ultimately be favored by

natural selection

163

Airborne chemicals used to attract mates are called...

pheromones

164

Sexual dimorphism in body size where females are larger than males is expected in...

polyandry

165

The coefficient of relatedness of a human (Homo sapiens) to a grandparent is...

0.25

166

Lakes with elevated dissolved nutrients and low water clarity are called ______.

eutrophic

167

In which of the following regions would you expect to find temperate forests?

45–55°N and 45–55°S

168

According to Hamilton’s rule (C<rB), a person should die to save the life of

more than 8 first cousins

169

You are conducting a mark–recapture study to estimate the population size of the Mexican staring frog of Southern Sri Lanka (Bufo mexicana–asiatica). If the number of individuals marked in a first catch = 50, the number of marked recaptures in a second catch = 10, and the total number of individuals in the second catch = 70, what is the estimated total population size?

350

170

What is the value of I0?

1.00

171

What is the value of n4 ?

62

172

what is the value of d0 ?

500

173

The population described by the life table has what type of survivorship curve?

type II

174

Parasitism is often a ____________ factor affecting populations.

density-dependent

175

Inclement weather events are often a ____________ factor affecting populations.

density-independent

176

Competition is often a ____________ factor affecting populations.

density-dependent

177

Growth slows down when populations reach carrying capacity because of

competition and resource limitation

178

Which model of population growth includes the effect of density–dependent resource limitation?

dN/dt = rN [(K–N)/K]

179

Pine trees shed many needles, which release tannins/ tannic acid into the soil, reducing its suitability for many plant species to grow there, resulting in...

inhibition

180

Many leguminous plant species are r–selected and good early colonists of disturbed areas. Additionally, legumes form mutualistic symbiotic relationships with the nitrogen–fixing bacteria Rhizobium. Which model of community succession would you expect to be associated with initial colonization by legumes?

facilitation

181

Which of these types of islands is predicted to have the intermediate equilibrium species richness under the MacArthur – Wilson Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography?

small island near mainland and large island far from mainland

182

Three forested swamps were inventoried for tree species. Trees were identified and counted along a randomly–placed line transect until a sample size of 100 trees was reached. Use the data in the table above to determine which statement(s) are false.

community A has the greatest species richness of all the communities

183

Using the data in the table above, what is the Shannon diversity index value for Community A?

1.609

184

Using the data in the table above, what is the species richness for Community A?

5

185

Using the data in the table above, what is the Jost–transformed Shannon diversity index value for Community A?

5

186

Which chemical is not present in the atmosphere in gaseous phase?

phosphorus

187

Which part of the nitrogen cycle involves the process of reducing nitrogen from nitrate (NO3-) to molecular nitrogen (N2)?

denitrification

188

Given a population size of 500 individuals and a net reproductive rate of 1.2, the population size in the next generation should be...

600

189

Given a population size of 500 individuals and a per capita rate of increase of 1.2, the change in the population size in the next generation should be...

600

190

Given a population size of 500 individuals and a per capita rate of increase of 1.2, the population size in the next generation should be...

1100

191

Given a population size of 500 individuals, a per capita rate of increase of 1.2 and a carrying capacity of 1000, the change in population size in the next generation should be...

300

192

Which statement regarding biogeochemical cycling is false?

phosphorus availability is largely dependent on biological processes

193

Which explanation explains all observed patterns of species richness?

none of the above; there is no single universal explanation for observed patterns of species richness

194

The type of species interaction between two species where is negatively affected and the other is seemingly not affected by the interaction is referred to as an...

amensalism

195
  1. The type of species interaction between two species where neither is affected, either to their respective benefit or detriment, is referred to as an...

neutralism

196

Robert MacArthur studied different species of songbirds and found that they did not compete strongly, despite living in the same tree canopies, because they specialized on different areas of the canopy, a phenomenon known as...

resource partitioning

197

in an experiment using Paramecium , cause found if p. caudatum population was driven to extinction

competitive exclusion principle