What fraction of the U.S. population is at least 65 years old?
What is the fastest-growing age group in the United States?
Over 85 years
What is the life expectancy of black males and females in the United States?
What was the average life expectancy of a person born in the year 1900?
What is the life expectancy of white males and females in the United States?
Approximately how many years is the maximum human life span?
Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is under control of her genes
Approximately what percentage of a person’s life expectancy is dependent upon his personal behavior?
What would be the physiological age of a 75-year-old woman whose physical health is equivalent to that of her 50-year-old daughter?
Studies of adults show that longevity is related, in part, to all of the following except
short periods of sleep
What is the most important predictor of a person’s mobility in the later years?
Regular physical activity
Which of the following is a finding from studies of diet restriction in rats?
Energy-restricted diets led to lowering of the metabolic rate and body temperature
Which of the following is a feature of energy intake and longevity?
Improvements in longevity depend on reducing energy intake but not on the amount of body fat
What minimum reduction from the usual intake of energy in people brings about measurable improvements in body fat, blood pressure, insulin response, and blood lipids?
People who persistently restrict energy intake by 30% for 30 years can expect to increase longevity by up to how many years?
In people who practice energy restriction to prolong life, hunger becomes persistent when kcal intake first drops by what percentage?
Which of the following is a proposed mechanism for energy restriction and improved longevity in animals?
Reduced oxidative stress
Which of the following is a feature of the stress response in men and women?
Women’s general reactions to stress are different than those of men
All of the following are characteristics of body weight and older people except
a higher body weight reduces the risk of sarcopenia
The relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age
What is sarcopenia?
Loss of muscle mass and strength
Which of the following is a characteristic of aging and the immune system?
Antibiotics are often ineffective in treating older people who have deficient immune systems
Which of the following terms describes an immune system that is inefficient and overactive in the aged?
Mary is 75 years old and has been getting sick recently and losing weight. After assessing all symptoms, her doctor diagnoses atrophic gastritis and prescribes an antibiotic. All of the following are symptoms associated with this condition except
A person with dysphagia has
All of the following are characteristics of tooth loss in the elderly except
the consumption of applesauce instead of apples and creamed corn instead of corn on the cob reduces nutrient bioavailability and impairs nutritional health.
Atrophic gastritis is typically characterized by all of the following signs except
insufficient secretion of pepsinogen and gastrin
A person who is edentulous has
Among the elderly, malnutrition is most common in those living
in nursing homes
What is the highest age group recognized in the Dietary Reference Intakes
71 years and older
A person with a pressure ulcer has damage to her
Approximately what percentage decline in basal metabolism is seen in an 80-year-old person compared with a 40-year-old?
Approximately what percentage decline in total energy expenditure is seen in a 70 year old versus a 30 year old
Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?
They vary according to individual histories
Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?
They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
What is the minimum number of glasses of water per day recommended for older adults?
Marie is an 80-year-old woman with a BMI of 27 who has been admitted to the hospital for dehydration. She lives alone, her diet is very high in desserts and sweets, and she only drinks diet colas. On morning hospital rounds, the attending physician asks the group of interns what they recommend for the patient. With which intern should you disagree?
Intern A: Try to lose enough weight to achieve a desirable BMI
Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from
insufficient intake of vitamin B12
John is 60 years old and has been experiencing numbness in his hands for the past 3 months. His doctor suspects that John is not producing enough hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor and encourages him to eat more foods containing vitamin B12. What is wrong with this suggestion?
Because John has no intrinsic factor, he cannot efficiently utilize vitamin B12 from natural sources and would need a vitamin B12-fortified food or supplement
All of the following are characteristics of vitamin B12 nutrition in older people except
the DRI Committee recommends that older people increase their meat intake to provide adequate vitamin B12.
Which of the following is a recent finding on vitamin D nutrition in the elderly
The skin’s capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?
Aging reduces the kidneys’ ability to convert vitamin D to its active form
To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective except
taking vitamin B12 injections
Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in the elderly
Calcium intakes are well below recommendations
Although many health-care professionals do not recommend a daily multivitamin-mineral supplement, the needs for which of the following nutrients are usually met from supplement use?
Which of the following statements describes one aspect of mineral nutrition of older adults?
Iron absorption is reduced due to low stomach acidity
A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is
poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.
What are the thickenings that occur to the lenses of the eye, thereby affecting vision, especially in the elderly?
Jimmy is 33 years old and his obese parents each have cataracts in both eyes. They rarely eat fruits or vegetables and prefer a meat and potatoes existence. To reduce his risk of developing cataracts like his parents, Jimmy should incorporate all of the following into his diet except
getting enough sleep at night to preserve the integrity of his eyes
All of the following are characteristics of age-related macular degeneration except
therapy includes elimination of purine-containing foods
All of the following are features of osteoarthritis except
nicotine intake reduces inflammation and increases flexibility
What nutrients appear to be protective of cataract formation?
Vitamin C and vitamin E
What organ is affected by macular degeneration?
Which of the following foods seems to benefit rheumatoid arthritis in some people?
All of the following are features of arthritis except
weight-bearing exercises often aggravate the pain from osteoarthritis.
Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?
Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids
All of the following are characteristics of gout except
it promotes formation of neurofibrillary tangles
Glucosamine and/or chondroitin supplements are used by some people to treat symptoms of
Which of the following is not a common feature of gout?
It is treated by reducing intake of milk products
Which of the following is thought to promote the development of brain senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles?
What percentage of U.S. adults are affected by Alzheimer’s disease after age 70?
Factors known to be related to the appearance of Alzheimer’s disease include all of the following except
a decrease in homocysteine synthesis
Which of the following is a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease
It is associated with clumps of beta-amyloid protein in the brain
What is the main reason for dieting in the elderly?
To pursue a medical goal such as reducing blood glucose
Which of the following is a feature of food choices and eating habits of older people?
opportunity for social interactions
What is a congregate meal?
A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
All of the following are features of the Meals on Wheels program except
it provides the same social benefits as congregate meals.
Goals of the federal Older Americans Act nutrition program include the provision of all of the following except
high-cost nutritious meals
A principal reason that congregate meals are preferable to Meals on Wheels is that
there are more social benefits to congregate meals
Rose is a 73-year-old spunky, energetic woman who is wheel-chair bound. She cannot go to the grocery store and has no family members nearby. Which of the following would be the most appropriate suggestion for ensuring that Rose is obtaining adequate nutrition?
Sign her up for the Meals on Wheels program
Which of the following is a program that provides low-income older adults with coupons that are exchangeable for fresh vegetables and fruits at community-supported farmers’ markets and roadside stands?
Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program
What percentage of eligible people 60 years and older participate in nutrition assistance programs?
What fraction of prescription drugs sold in the United States is taken by people over 65 years of age
How does aspirin reduce inflammation and pain?
It interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins
What are the known consequences of taking a single two-tablet dose of aspirin?
It doubles the bleeding time of wounds
All of the following are characteristics of aspirin use except
it acts as a pro-clotting agent
What is the primary action of the medication megestrol acetate?
it promotes weight gain
A major side effect from the regular use of some antipsychotics, antidepressants, and corticosteroids is
substantial weight gain
What two nutrients are known to interfere significantly with the utilization of the antibiotic tetracycline?
iron and calcium
Regular use of antacids interferes significantly with absorption of all of the following except
Which of the following drugs has a chemical structure similar to folate?
What is a common side effect from taking certain prescription drugs and consuming grapefruit juice?
Blood concentrations of the drugs increase
Which of the following is a feature of warfarin use and vitamin K utilization?
Dietary vitamin K intake determines the amount of warfarin prescribed
Your father was recently prescribed an anticoagulant medicine and was surprised that the doctor advised him to maintain consumption of consistent amounts of green leafy vegetables every day. You inform your father that
inconsistent intakes of green leafy vegetables will interfere with the regular action of the drug.
Which of the following foods in particular must be restricted in the diet of a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug?
What ingredient commonly used as a sweetener in liquid medicines often causes diarrhea?