3 RadReview Head (56)

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1
card image

Which of the following structures is illustrated by the number 2 in Figure 2–21?

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A Maxillary sinus

B Coronoid process

C Zygomatic arch

D Coracoid process

Zygomatic arch

2

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the paranasal sinuses?

  1. CR and OML form a 15 degree angle with the horizontal beam.
  2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.
  3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

3

The structures forming the brain stem include

  1. the pons
  2. the medulla oblongata
  3. the midbrain

A 1 and 2 only

B 1 and 3 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

4

The hard palate is formed by the

1. ethmoid bone.

2. maxillary bone.

3. palatine bone.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

C 2 and 3 only

5
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Which of the following would best evaluate the structure labeled 4 in Figure 2–14?

A PA axial projection (Caldwell method)

B Parietoacanthal projection (Waters method)

C Lateral projection

D Submentovertical projection

Parietoacanthal projection (Waters method)

6

When modifying the PA axial projection of the skull to demonstrate superior orbital fissures, the central ray is directed

A 20° to 25° caudad.

B 20° to 25° cephalad.

C 30° to 35° caudad.

D 30° to 35° cephalad.

A 20° to 25° caudad.

7

In the AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull, with the CR directed 30 degrees caudad to the orbitomeatal line (OML) and passing midway between the external auditory meati, which of the following is best demonstrated?

A Occipital bone

B Frontal bone

C Facial bones

D Basal foramina

A Occipital bone

8

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the cranium? 1. The central ray is directed caudally to the OML. 2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits. 3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

9

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding a PA axial projection of the paranasal sinuses?

  1. The OML is elevated 15 degrees from the horizontal.
  2. The petrous pyramids completely fill the orbits.
  3. The frontal and ethmoidal sinuses are visualized.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

10

An increase in exposure factors usually is required in which of the following circumstances?

  1. Edema
  2. Ascites
  3. Acromegaly

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

11

What angle is formed by the median sagittal plane and the IR in the parieto-orbital projection (Rhese method) of the optic canal?

A 90°

B 37°

C 53°

D 45°

53°

12
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What is the degree of difference between the baselines numbered 2 and 3 in Figure 2–38 and used for various projections of the skull?

A 7 degrees

B 8 degrees

C 15 degrees

D 23 degrees

A 7 degrees

13

The junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures is the

A diploe

B lambda

C bregma

D pterion

C bregma

14
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In Figure A, which of the localization lines is used for the lateral projection of the skull?

Figure A. Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.

A Line 1

B Line 2

C Line 3

D Line 4

C Line 3

15

Which of the following positions is essential in radiography of the paranasal sinuses?

A Erect

B Recumbent

C Oblique

D Trendelenburg

A Erect

16
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The structure labeled 3 in Figure 2–14 is the

A maxillary sinus

B sphenoidal sinus

C ethmoidal sinus

D frontal sinus

B sphenoidal sinus

17

At what level do the carotid arteries bifurcate?

A Foramen magnum

B Trachea

C Pharynx

D C4

D C4

18

Standard radiographic protocols may be reduced to include two views, at right angles to each other, in which of the following situations?

A Barium examinations

B Spine radiography

C Skull radiography

D Emergency and trauma radiography

D Emergency and trauma radiography

19

Structures involved in blowout fractures include the

  1. orbital floor
  2. inferior rectus muscle
  3. zygoma

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

20

A signed consent form is necessary prior to performing all the following procedures except

A myelogram.

B cardiac catheterization.

C upper GI series.

D interventional vascular procedure.

C upper GI series.

21
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What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 1 in the radiograph shown in Figure 6–20?

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A Mandibular angle

B Coronoid process

C Zygomatic arch

D Maxillary sinus

A Mandibular angle

22

To demonstrate the mandibular body in the PA position, the

A CR is directed perpendicular to the IR.

B CR is directed cephalad to the IR.

C skull is obliqued away from the affected side.

D skull is obliqued toward the affected side.

A CR is directed perpendicular to the IR.

23

Which of the following positions/projections of the skull will result in the most shape distortion?

A 0° PA

B 23° Caldwell

C 37° Towne

D 25° Haas

C 37° Towne

24

Which of the following structures should be visualized through the foramen magnum in an AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull for occipital bone?

  1. Posterior clinoid processes
  2. Dorsum sella
  3. Posterior arch of C1

A 1 only

B 2 only

C 1 and 2 only

D 2 and 3 only

C 1 and 2 only

25

Which of the following is (are) required for a lateral projection of the skull?

  1. The IOML is parallel to the IR.
  2. The MSP is parallel to the IR.
  3. The CR enters ¾ inch superior and anterior to the EAM.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

26

The submentovertical (SMV) oblique axial projection of the zygomatic arches requires that the skull be rotated

A 15 degrees toward the affected side.

B 15 degrees away from the affected side.

C 45 degrees toward the affected side.

D 45 degrees away from the affected side.

A 15 degrees toward the affected side.

27

If a patient's zygomatic arch has been traumatically depressed or the patient has flat cheekbones, the arch may be demonstrated by modifying the SMV projection and rotating the patient's head

A 15 degrees toward the side being examined

B 15 degrees away from the side being examined

C 30 degrees toward the side being examined

D 30 degrees away from the side being examined

A 15 degrees toward the side being examined

28

Which of the following skull positions will demonstrate the cranial base, sphenoidal sinuses, atlas, and odontoid process?

A AP axial

B Lateral

C Parietoacanthial

D Submentovertical (SMV)

D Submentovertical (SMV)

29
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 3 in the radiograph in Figure 6–20?

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A Mandibular angle

B Coronoid process

C Zygomatic arch

D Maxillary sinus

B Coronoid process

30

With the patient's head in a PA position and the CR directed 20 degrees cephalad, which part of the mandible will be best visualized?

A Symphysis

B Rami

C Body

D Angle

B Rami

31

Which of the following positions demonstrates all the paranasal sinuses?

A Parietoacanthial

B PA axial

C Lateral

D True PA

C Lateral

32
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Referring to Figure 2–38, which of the following positions requires that baseline number 3 be parallel to the IR?

A Parietoacanthial

B PA axial (Caldwell)

C AP axial (Towne)

D SMV

D SMV

33

Which of the following statements is (are) correct regarding the parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method) of the skull? 1. The head is rested on the extended chin. 2. The orbitomeatal line (OML) is perpendicular to the (IR). 3. The maxillary antra should be projected above the petrosa.

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

34

With the patient in the PA position and the OML and CR perpendicular to the IR, the resulting radiograph will demonstrate the petrous pyramids

A below the orbits

B in the lower third of the orbits

C completely within the orbits

D above the orbits

C completely within the orbits

35

The floor of the cranium includes all the following bones except

A the temporal bones

B the occipital bone

C the ethmoid bone

D the sphenoid bone

B the occipital bone

36

All the following statements regarding an exact PA projection of the skull are true except

A the orbitomeatal line is perpendicular to the IR.

B the petrous pyramids fill the orbits.

C the midsagittal plane (MSP) is parallel to the IR.

D the central ray is perpendicular to the IR and exits at the nasion.

C the midsagittal plane (MSP) is parallel to the IR.

37

The auditory, or eustachian, tube extends from the nasopharynx to the

A external ear.

B middle ear.

C inner ear.

D oropharynx.

B middle ear.

38

In a lateral projection of the nasal bones, the CR is directed

A 1/2 inch posterior to the anterior nasal spine

B ¾ inch posterior to the glabella

C ¾ inch distal to the nasion

D 1/2 inch anterior to the EAM

C ¾ inch distal to the nasion

39

When evaluating a PA axial projection of the skull with a 15-degree caudal angle, the radiographer should see

  1. petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits
  2. equal distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral rim of the orbit bilaterally
  3. symmetrical petrous pyramids

A 1 and 2 only

B 1 and 3 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

D 1, 2, and 3

40
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Which of the four baselines illustrated in Figure 6–15 should be used for a lateral projection of facial bones?

A Baseline 1

B Baseline 2

C Baseline 3

D Baseline 4

C Baseline 3

41

The true lateral position of the skull uses which of the following principles?

  1. Interpupillary line perpendicular to the IR
  2. MSP perpendicular to the IR
  3. Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) parallel to the transverse axis of the IR

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

C 1 and 3 only

42
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Which of the following methods was used to obtain the image seen in Figure 2–6?

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A erect PA, chin extended, OML forming 37 degrees to IR

B erect PA, OML, and CR perpendicular to IR

C erect PA, chin extended, OML 15 degree from horizontal

D erect PA, chin extended, OML 30 degree from horizontal

C erect PA, chin extended, OML 15 degree from horizontal

43

Glossitis refers to inflammation of the

A epiglottis

B salivary glands

C tongue

D ossicles

C tongue

44
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What should be done to better demonstrate the mandibular rami seen in PA projection in Figure A?

Figure A. Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A use a perpendicular CR

B angle the CR cephalad

C angle the CR caudad

D oblique the head 15° medial

B angle the CR cephalad

45

Which of the following positions is/are most frequently used to demonstrate the sphenoid sinuses?

  1. Modified Waters (mouth open)
  2. Lateral
  3. PA axial

A 1 only

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2, and 3

B 1 and 2 only

46
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The radiographic position illustrated in Figure 6–18 is used to demonstrate

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A ethmoidal and frontal sinuses.

B maxillary sinuses.

C sphenoidal sinuses through the open mouth.

D mastoid sinuses.

A ethmoidal and frontal sinuses.

47

With a patient in the PA position and the OML perpendicular to the table, a 15- to 20-degree caudal angulation would place the petrous ridges in the lower third of the orbit. To achieve the same result in a baby or a small child, it is necessary for the radiographer to modify the angulation to

A 10 to 15 degrees caudal

B 25 to 30 degrees caudal

C 15 to 20 degrees cephalic

D 3 to 5 degrees caudal

A 10 to 15 degrees caudal

48

Which of the following sinus groups is demonstrated with the patient positioned as for a parietoacanthal projection (Waters method) with the CR directed through the patient's open mouth?

A Frontal

B Ethmoidal

C Maxillary

D Sphenoidal

D Sphenoidal

49
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What is the anatomic structure indicated by the number 3 in the radiograph in Figure 6–12?

Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.

A Spinous process

B Transverse process

C Pedicle

D Intervertebral foramen

B Transverse process

50

If your patient is unable to stay erect for a paranasal sinus examination, which of the following alternatives should be chosen?

A Recumbent AP

B Lateral recumbent

C Lateral cross-table recumbent

D Recumbent Waters'

C Lateral cross-table recumbent