Surgical Pharmacology & Anesthesia - Chpt 9 - AST Surg Tech

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1

Pharmacology is:

the study of medications and their actions, including drug origins, properties and usage.

2

Drug is defined as:

a substance used as medicine for the dianosis, treatment, cure, mitigation, or prevention of disease or condition.

3

Contraindictions are:

a list of circumstances or medical condtitions under which the medication should not be used.

4

An agonist is:

a drug that stimulates or prolongs the response of a drug or a physiologic action

5

An antagonist:

binds to the agonist's receptor site, preventing the agonist from binding there and causing its desired effect.

6

The prefix that designates 1000 times in the metric system is:

Kilo

7

The basic unit of measure for weight in the metric system is the:

gram

8

The number of milliliters in an ounce is:

30 ml

9

The number of milliters in a cup is:

240 ml

10

Medication used to relieve pain is a/an:

analgesic

11

A drug for high potential additiona and abuse is a/an:

controlled substance

12

Anesthesia produced by marked cooling is:

Cryoansethesia

13

An example of a type of drug used to prevent disease is a/an:

vaccine

14

The route of administration that produces the most immediate action is:

IV

15

Saying that a drug is to be given hs means that:

it should be taken at bedtime

16

The needle gauge most appropriate for local infiltration is:

25 gauge

17

A contrast medium used when performing a cholangiogram is:

diatrizoate sodium (Hypaque)

18

Amnesia is:

lack of recall

19

Anaphylaxis is:

immediate manifestation of a hypersensitivity to a specific substance, usually resulting in respiratory distress and vascular collapse

20

Anesthesia is:

lack of sensation

21

Antagonist is:

a drug that blocks the action of another drug or physiologic action without producing any effect of its own

22

Antimuscarinic means:

(formerly known as anticholinergic) agents that block cholinergic (parasympathetic) effects, such as salivation and bradycardia

23

Aspiration as applies to anethesia means:

inadvertent inhalation of gastric contents or a foreign body into the lungs

24

Biotechnology is:

source of drugs that are genetically engineered in the laboratory; also referred to as recombinant DNA technology

25

Buccal

refers to the cheek; buccal medication administration is considered topical; the medication is placed between the cheek and the teeth and allowed to dissolve and/or be absorbed

26

Capnography

system for monitoring the exhaled amount of carbon dioxide

27

Contraindication:

a reason why a specific procedure or drug may be undesirable or improper in a particular situation

28

Doppler

ultrasonic device used to identify and assess vascular status of peripheral arteries and veins by magnifying the sound of the blood moving through the vessel

29

Drug:

13. a substance used as medicine for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, mitigation, or prevention (prophylaxis) of disease or a condition

30

Generic:

14. nonproprietary name for a drug that is a shortened version of the chemical name or gives a reference to the intended use

31

Homeostasis

stable physiologic state

32

Hypnosis

altered state of consciousness in relation to the patient’s perception of the surgical environment and surgical procedure

33

Iatrogenic

an unavoidable effect or disease induced by pharmacologic therapy

34

Indication

a reason to perform a specific procedure or prescribe a certain drug

35

Induction:

The second stage of anesthesia in which the patient is given induction drugs and intubated. The patient's level of consciousness changes from alert to unconscious; reflexes are depressed.

36

Intra-articular

within a joint

37

Larynogospasm

22. sudden, involuntary contraction of the larynx that is capable of causing partial or total occlusion of the larynx

38

Intrathecal

within the subdural space

39

NPO

nothing by mouth(Latin – nil per os)

40

PACU

post anesthesia care unit

41

Parenteral

other than enteral, by injection

42

Pharmacodynamics

term describing the interaction of drug molecules with the target cells; the resulting action is biochemical and physiologic

43

Pharmacokinetics

term used to describe the entire process of the drug’s activity within the body; the process of pharmacokinesis involves absorption, distribution, biotransformation (metabolism), and excretion

44

Pharmacology

the study of drugs and their actions

45

Prophylaxis

prevention of disease or a condition

46

Synergist

action of one agent increase the action of the other agent when delivered together

47

Topical

applied to the skin or mucous membrane to provide a localized or systemic effect

48

Volatile Agents

group of liquids whose potent evaporative vapors, when inhaled, produce general anesthesia by depressing the CNS

49

C

Celcius

50

m

Meter, micrometer, or minim

51

kg

Kilogram

52

L

liter

53

mL

microliter

54

F

Fahrenheit

55

mm

millimeter

56

mg

milligram

57

g

gram

58

ung

microgram

59

lb

pound

60

mcg

microgram

61

oz

ounce

62

cm

centimeter

63

mEq

milliequivalen

64

cc

cubic centimeter

65

IV

Intravenous

66

PO

by mouth

67

IM

intramuscular

68

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

69

UTI

urinary tract infection

70

PONV

by mouth, nausea and vomiting

71

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

72

ARDS

adult respiratory distress syndrome

73

LMA

laryngeal mask airway

74

ETT

endotracheal tube

75

SARA

system for anesthetic and respiratory analysis

76

ABG

arterial blood gas

77

PT

prothrombin time

78

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

79

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

80

CNS

central nervous system

81

USP

United States Pharmacopeia

82

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

83

BIS

bispectral index monitor

84

1 m

36.37 inches

85

1 inch

2.54 cm

86

1 mL

1 cc

87

2 oz

60 cc

88

1 gram

1000 mg

89

1 kg

2.2 lbs

90

1 cc

14-15 minims

91

1 L

1000 cc

92

Boiling Point 212 degrees F

100 degrees C

93

1 minim

1 gtt

94

1 oz

30 cc

95

98.6 degrees F

37 degrees C

96

100 mL

100 cc

97

1 meter

1000 cm

98

analgesic

relieves pain

99

anesthetic

produces partial or complete loss of sensation

100

antibiotic

prevents or treats infections

101

anticholinergic

blocks parasympathetic impulses

102

anticoagulant

prevents clots or thrombus formations

103

antiemetic

prevents or treats nausea and vomiting

104

anti-inflammatory

prevents or treats pain, redness, swelling or heat

105

antipyretic

relieves fever

106

controlled substance

drugs with the potential for addiction

107

contrast media

appears radio paque on an x-ray

108

cycloplegic

paralyzes the ciliary muscle of the eye

109

diuretic

increases urine output or edema

110

dye

colors or marks tissue

111

fibrinolytic

dissolves clots or thrombus - enzyme

112

hemostatic

enhances formation of clot or thrombus

113

hormone

secretion of endrocrine gland

114

miotic

constricts pupil

115

mydriatic

dialates pupil

116

sedative

reduces mental anxiety and promotes sleep

117

vasocontrictor

increases blood pressure

118

lidocaine

antiarrhythmia and anesthetic

119

dantrolene

treatment for MH

120

epinephrine

hormone vasoconstrictor

121

benzodiazepines

preoperative sedative

122

atropine

anticholinergic - drecreases musoucs secretions or treats bradycardia

123

nitrous oxide

gas anesthetic may increase ear pressure

124

heparin

anticoagulant use for vascular cases

125

thrombin

hemostatic agent never given IV

126

mannitol

osmotic diuretic

127

Bacitracin

antibiotic

128

adrenaline/epinephrine

Adrenergic/hormone/vasoconstrictor

129

Ancef/Cefazolin sodium

Antibiotic/cephalosporin

130

Anectine/Succinylcholine chloride

Neuromuscular blockage agent; depolarizing muscle relaxer

131

Benadryl/Diphenhydramine

Antihistamine

132

Coumadin/Warfarin sodium

Anticoagulant

133

Dantrium/Dantrolene sodium

MH (malignant hyperthermia) antagonist

134

Decadron/Dexamethasone

Anti-inflammatory/steroid

135

Demerol/Meperidine hcl

Analgesic/narcotic analgesic

136

Flagyl/Metronidazole

Antifungal/amebicide/antiprotozoal

137

Gelfoam/Absorbable hemostatic gelatin

Hemostatic agent

138

Heparin/Heparin sodium

Anticoagulant

139

Humulin/Insulin, human

hormone

140

Kantrex/Kanamycin sulfate

antibiotic

141

Lasix/Furosemide

Diuretic

142

Lidocaine/Xylocaine hydrochloride

Anti-arrythmic/anesthetic

143

Marcaine/Bupivicaine hcl

Anesthetic/amide nerve blockade

144

Narcan/Naloxone hydrochloride

Narcotic antagonist

145

Papverine/Papaverine hydrochloride

Vasopressor/vasodilator

146

Pitocin/Oxytocin

Hormone

147

Renografin

Contrast media

148

Silvadene/Silver sulfadiazine

Anti-infective/sulfonamide

149

Sodium pentothal/Thiopental sodium

Anesthetic/induction agent

150

Solu-cortef/Hydrocortisone sodium succinate

Steroid anti-inflammatory

151

Sublimaze/Fentanyl citrate

Narcotic analgesic

152

Surgical/Oxycel/Oxidized cellulose

Hemostatic agent

153

Tagamet/Cimetidine

Antacid/histamine blocker

154

Toradol/Ketoralac tromethamine

Nonnarcotic analgesic

155

Tracrium/Atracurium besylate

Non-depolarizing muscle relaxer or neuromuscular blockage agent

156

Valium/Diazepam

Sedative tranquilizer/ benzodiazepine

157

Versed/Midazolam hydrochloride

Sedative tranquilizer/benzodiazepine

158

Wydase/Hyaluronidase

Enzyme/anesthesia additive