Chapter 18 - Cardiovascular System: The Heart Part A

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1

Where is the heart located?

In the mediastinum between the second rib and fifth intercostal space

2

What is the double-walled sac that encloses the heart?

pericardium

3

What is the superficial layer of the pericardium called?

fibrous pericardium

4

What protects, anchors, and prevents overfilling of the heart?

fibrous pericardium (superficial layer)

5

What is the deep, two-layered level of the pericardium?

serous pericardium

6

Layers of the heart wall: what is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium?

epicardium

7

What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart composed of crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue?

myocardium

8

Which layer of the heart is continuous with the endothelial lining of blood vessels?

endocardium

9

What are the chambers of the heart called?

atria and ventricles

10

What separates the two atria of the heart?

interatrial septum

11

What encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles?

coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove)

12

What separates the two ventricles of the heart?

interventricular septum

13

Describe the circulation of the heart

right atrium to right ventricle to the lungs, to the left atrium to the left ventricle to all over the body

14

What supplies blood to the heart?

the coronary artery

15

What are the receiving chambers of the heart?

the atria

16

What are the discharging chambers of the heart?

the ventricles

17

What are the vessels entering the right atrium?

superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus

18

What vessels enter the left atrium?

right and left pulmonary veins

19

What vessel leaves the right ventricle?

the pulmonary trunk

20

What vessel leaves the left ventricle?

the aorta

21

Which side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary circuit?

right side

22

What circuit involves vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs?

pulmonary circuit

23

What side of the heart is the pump for the systemic circuit?

left side

24

What circuit involves vessels that carry blood to and from all body tissues?

systemic circuit

25

Which circuit has oxygen poor, CO2 rich blood?

pulmonary circuit

26

Which circuit has oxygen rich, CO2 poor blood?

systemic circuit

27

Which circuit is a short, low-pressure circulation?

pulmonary

28

In which circuit does blood encounter much resistance in long pathways?

systemic

29

Which ventricle has a much thicker wall, reflecting its function?

left

30

What is thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium (cells are weakened)?

angina pectoris

31

What is a prolonged coronary blockage, where areas of cell death are repaired with noncontractile scar tissue?

myocardial infarction (heart attack)

32

What helps ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart?

the valves

33

Which valves prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract?

atrio-ventricular valves (AV)

34

What are the atrioventricular valves?

tricuspid (right) and mitral (left) valves

35

Where is the tricuspid valve located?

Between the right atrium and right ventricle

36

Where is the mitral valve located?

Between the left atrium and left ventricle

37

In which direction to the valves open?

towards the ventricles

38

What prevents backflow into the ventricles when the ventricles relax?

semilunar valves

39

What are the two semilunar valves?

aortic and pulmonary

40

Where does the aortic semilunar valve go?

to the lungs

41

Where does the pulmonary semilunar valve go?

to the aorta