Chapter 18 - Cardiovascular System: The Heart Part A
Where is the heart located?
In the mediastinum between the second rib and fifth intercostal space
What is the double-walled sac that encloses the heart?
What is the superficial layer of the pericardium called?
What protects, anchors, and prevents overfilling of the heart?
fibrous pericardium (superficial layer)
What is the deep, two-layered level of the pericardium?
Layers of the heart wall: what is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium?
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart composed of crisscrossing, interlacing layer of connective tissue?
Which layer of the heart is continuous with the endothelial lining of blood vessels?
What are the chambers of the heart called?
atria and ventricles
What separates the two atria of the heart?
What encircles the junction of the atria and ventricles?
coronary sulcus (atrioventricular groove)
What separates the two ventricles of the heart?
Describe the circulation of the heart
right atrium to right ventricle to the lungs, to the left atrium to the left ventricle to all over the body
What supplies blood to the heart?
the coronary artery
What are the receiving chambers of the heart?
What are the discharging chambers of the heart?
What are the vessels entering the right atrium?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and the coronary sinus
What vessels enter the left atrium?
right and left pulmonary veins
What vessel leaves the right ventricle?
the pulmonary trunk
What vessel leaves the left ventricle?
Which side of the heart is the pump for the pulmonary circuit?
What circuit involves vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs?
What side of the heart is the pump for the systemic circuit?
What circuit involves vessels that carry blood to and from all body tissues?
Which circuit has oxygen poor, CO2 rich blood?
Which circuit has oxygen rich, CO2 poor blood?
Which circuit is a short, low-pressure circulation?
In which circuit does blood encounter much resistance in long pathways?
Which ventricle has a much thicker wall, reflecting its function?
What is thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium (cells are weakened)?
What is a prolonged coronary blockage, where areas of cell death are repaired with noncontractile scar tissue?
myocardial infarction (heart attack)
What helps ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart?
Which valves prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract?
atrio-ventricular valves (AV)
What are the atrioventricular valves?
tricuspid (right) and mitral (left) valves
Where is the tricuspid valve located?
Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the mitral valve located?
Between the left atrium and left ventricle
In which direction to the valves open?
towards the ventricles
What prevents backflow into the ventricles when the ventricles relax?
What are the two semilunar valves?
aortic and pulmonary
Where does the aortic semilunar valve go?
to the lungs
Where does the pulmonary semilunar valve go?
to the aorta