bio151 exam3 Flashcards


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58

electron transport chain

1-Four ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combined. The electron transport chain produces 34 ATP.
2-The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
3-The electron transport chain requires oxygen.
ETC: 10NADH + 2FADH234ATP

59

lactic acid ferementation

Lactic acid fermentation is common in fungi and bacteria. Lactic acid fermentation also takes place in human muscle cells when strenuous exercise causes temporary oxygen shortages.
pyruvate + NADHlactic acid + NAD+

60

alcohol fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation is the source of ethyl alcohol present in wines and liquors. It also accounts for the bubbles in bread. When yeast in bread dough runs out of oxygen, it goes through alcoholic fermentation, producing carbon dioxide. These carbon dioxide bubbles create spaces in the dough and cause it to rise.
pyruvate + NADHethyl alcohol + NAD+ + CO2

61

In aerobic respiration carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into:

carbon dioxide (co2)

62

Most ATP in eukaryotic cells is produced in the:

Mitochondria

63

Most ATP produced in aerobic respiration occurs in the process of:

chemiosmosis

64

In aerobic respiration, the energy in 1 mole of glucose is capable of producing how many ATP molecules:

38 x (6.02 x 1023) molecules of ATP

65

products of glycolysis include

pyruvate, NADH, ATP

66

In glycolysis the most reduced compound formed is:

Pyruvate

67

In glycolysis, the activation of glucose is accomplished by:

ATP

68

Products of the Krebs cycle include:

carbon dioxide, NADH, FADH2

69

The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is:

oxygen

70

In the presence of oxygen, all cells synthesize ATP via the process of glycolysis. Many cells also can metabolize pyruvate if oxygen is not present, via the process of:

fermentation

71

The net result of the breakdown of glucose in glycolysis and fermentation is the production of:

2 ATP

72

Which stage of aerobic respiration requires ATP?

glycolysis

73

Which stage of aerobic respiration requires CO2?

none

74

Which stage of aerobic respiration produces ATP and NADH and releases CO2?

Krebs cycle

75

The high concentration of protons in the inner mitochondrial space relative to the mitochondrial matrix represents:

potential energy

76

As protons flow through the ______ , energy is released and exploited to combine ADP and inorganic phosphate to form ATP.

ATP synthase

77

photosynthesis

plant cells convert light energy into chemical energy that is stored in sugars and other organic compounds.

78

chlorophyll

green color pigment in plants

79

How is ATP generated in ETC

ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP synthase

80

Where do ETC occur

in mitochondria

81

where does kreb cycle occur

in mitochondria

82

where does glycolysis occur

in cytoplasm

83

where does aerobic respiration occur

in glycolysis, kreb cycle, and ETC

84

GLycolysis produces:

4 ATP's and 2 NADH, but uses 2 ATP's in the process for a net of 2 ATP and 2 NADH

85

products released during transisition stage (before krebs cycle)

2 NADH's are generated (1 per pyruvate)
2 CO2 are released (1 per pyruvate)

86

what is generated during krebs cycle

6 NADH's are generated (3 per Acetyl CoA that enters)
2 FADH2 is generated (1 per Acetyl CoA that enters)
2 ATP are generated (1 per Acetyl CoA that enter
4 CO2 are released (2 per Acetyl CoA that enters)

87

what is produced together the transistion stage and krebs cycle

8 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP
6 CO2

88

what is the goal of ETC

to break down NADH and FADH2, pumping H+ into the outer compartment of the mitochondria.
ATP is generated as H+ moves down its concentration gradient through a special enzyme called ATP synthase

89

building blocks of organisms

cells

90

During which metabolic stage is glucose broken down to pyruvate?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) The electron transport chain
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

glycolysis

91

What molecule is essential for aerobic respiration to take place?
(A) Nitrogen
(B) Oxygen
(C) Ethanol
(D) Carbon dioxide

oxygen

92

Which of the following is not one of the three major macromolecule components of food?
(A) Carbohydrates
(B) Lipids
(C) Oxygen
(D) Proteins

oxygen

93

Which of the following molecules contains three phosphate groups?
(A) AMP
(B) ADP
(C) APP
(D) ATP

ATP

94

Which of the following is not a coenzyme?
(A) CoA
(B) FAD
(C) ATP
(D) NAD

ATP

95

Organisms that acquire energy through photosynthesis are called which of the following?
(A) Autotrophs
(B) Chemotrophs
(C) Prototrophs
(D) Phototrophs

PHototrophs

96

In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is FADH2 oxidized?
(A) I
(B) II
(C) III
(D) V

II

97

Organisms that acquire energy through ingestion of food are called which of the following?
(A) Autotrophs
(B) Chemotrophs
(C) Prototrophs
(D) Phototrophs

Chemotrophs

98

Chemotrophs require _________ and produce _________ while phototrophs require _________ and produce _________.
(A) Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen.
(B) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen.
(C) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water.
(D) Oxygen, water, phosphate, nitrogen

o2 co2 co2 o2

99

In which protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane is ATP synthesized?
(A) I
(B) II
(C) IV
(D) V

V

100

Metabolic reactions that synthesize molecules are classified as _________ while metabolic reactions that degrade molecules are classified as _________.
(A) Chemotrophic
(B) Phototrophic
(C) Anabolic
(D) Catabolic

anaebolic

101

What type of metabolic reaction involves a loss of electrons from the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

oxidation

102

What molecule is produced when oxygen is reduced by the electrons in the electron transport chain?
(A) Hydrogen
(B) Water
(C) NADH
(D) FADH2

water

103

What type of metabolic reaction involves a gain of electrons by the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

reduction

104

How many molecules of carbon dioxide are generated during the Kreb cycle?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

2

105

What type of metabolic reaction does not change the atomic make-up of the molecule involved?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

isomerization

106

What type of metabolic reaction involves the transfer of a phosphate group?
(A) Oxidation
(B) Reduction
(C) Phosphorylation
(D) Isomerization

phosopholyration

107

Which of the following is not a component of the chemotrophic respiratory pathway?
(A) Glycolysis
(B) The citric acid cycle
(C) Photosynthesis
(D) Oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis

108

What is the name of the molecule generated in the final step of the Kreb cycle and is also used in the first step?
(A) Oxaloacetate
(B) Pyruvate
(C) Acetyl-CoA
(D) NADH

oxalocetate

109

Respiration that occurs without oxygen is classified as which of the following
(A) Chemotrophic
(B) Phototrophic
(C) Aerobic
(D) Anaerobic

anerorbic

110

What is the main cellular structure involved in respiration?
(A) Nucleus
(B) Golgi apparatus
(C) Mitochondria
(D) ER

mitochondria

111

Which of the following does not accurately describe the glycolytic pathway?
(A) Anabolic
(B) Catabolic
(C) Chemotrophic
(D) Metabolic

anabolic

112

How many carbon atoms are found in one molecule of glucose?
(A) 1
(B) 3
(C) 6
(D) 9

6

113

What is the end product of aerobic glycolysis?
(A) Citrate
(B) Pyruvate
(C) ATP
(D) NADH

pyruvate

114

In what part of the cell does glycolysis take place?
(A) Cytosol
(B) Mitochondria
(C) Golgi apparatus
(D) ER

cytosol

115

An enzyme that ca

2

proteins, (few with RNA and proteins) ( some has only RNA)

42

what are pathways

multistep reactions

43

basic properties of enzymes

speed up reactions
not consumed in reactions/reausable
very specific becoz of shape

44

how do enzymes affect chemical reactions

enzymes are catalysts. Catalysts help reactions occur more quickly (increase rate of reactions), or at unfavorable conditions (wrong pH, wrong temperature)
or lower the activation energy for a reaction. Catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so are free to continue catalyzing
KEY WORD : catalysts, lowers activation energy for reaction, imp in 3D shape

45

factors that influence enzyme activity

1. shape: temp, ph, ionic condition, absense of inhibitor, water, chemical modification
2. collision rate: temp, concentration of reactants and enzymes

46

what can you adjust in enzyme activity

only inhibitors and chemical modification.. everything else stays the same

47

what determines the specificity of enzymes

structure (lock and key mechanism)
where the substrate (this substance the enzyme acts on) is the lock and the enzyme is the key.
so only the enzymes with the structure that fits perfectly into the substrate can act on the substrate.
hence specific enzymes act on specific substrates.

48

competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors

competitive: bind to same site as substrate (compete for binding), no reaction because it is stuck to site
noncompetitive: changes shape of active site by binding to other side (allosteric site)
result in nihitibion reaction only for noncompetitive

49

what happens during denaturation

the 3-D structure of protein get disturb or get opened (uncoil) by breaking of hydrogen bonds. happens during heat
KEY-looses shape

50

what are the conditions that can cause denaturation of proteins

heat
ion concentration (ph)
water concentration (low)
chemical alterations(bonding breaks)

51

what is the universsal energy molecule of the cell

ATP (adenosine tri phosphate)

52

what is the role of oxygen in fermentation, aeorbic respiration, anerobic respiration?

see notebook

53

what is the final chemical product after the breakdown of glucose during respiration, fermentation

Fermentation - 2 ATP from one glucose
Respiration - 36 ATP from one glucose

54

which part of respiration, fermentation, produces carbon dioxide?

Carbon dioxide is released during two phases of cellular respiration. The first phase that carbon dioxide leaves is during pyruvate decarboxylation. The second time CO2 is released is during the Kreb's cycle. 1 CO2 leaves during the decarboxylation and two leave during the Kreb's cycle. Since there are two pyruvate per glucose molecule, everything happens twice. This makes a total of 6 CO2 released per glucose molecule.

55

what is required to carry out glycolysis, making of fermentation products, krebs cycle, etc

glucose

56

Glycolysis

1-Glycolysis is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
2-Glycolysis splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons.
3-In glycolysis, a 2 ATP investment results in a 4 ATP payoff.
4-Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
5-Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, glycolysis does not require oxygen
Glycolysis - C6H12O6 + 2ATP + 2NAD+2pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH

57

Kreb's cycle

1-The Krebs cycle results in 2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule run through glycolysis.
2-The Krebs cycle sends energy-laden NADH and FADH2 molecules on to the next step in respiration, the electron transport chain. It does not export carbon molecules for further processing.
-The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, the innermost compartment of the mitochondria.
4-Though the Krebs cycle does not directly require oxygen, it can only take place when oxygen is present because it relies on by-products from the electron transport chain, which requires oxygen.
5-The Krebs cycle is therefore an aerobic process
Krebs cycle: 2acetyl-CoA + 2oxaloacetate4CO2 + 6NADH + 2FADH2 + 2ATP + 2oxaloacetate

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