A&P1 Exam 2

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Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue Chapter 8 Joints Chapter 10 The muscular system
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1

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.

2

_____ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.

red *** check this

3

eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ____.

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months.

4

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

5

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

6

bones united by hyaline cartilage

syndesmosis

7

A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?

basale

8

Osteomalacia is ______.

literally known as "soft bone"

9

Tendon sheaths______.

act as friction-reducing structures

10

Why hair appears the way it does?

Curly hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.

11

_____ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.

dendritic cells

12

The design of a person's epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges?

They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.

13

In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. What is another vital function of the skin?

It converts epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.

14

The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

appositional growth

15

The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

epiphyseal line

16

Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place

epiphyseal plate

17

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ______.

blood vessels and nerve fibers

18

The layer of the epidermis where the cells are considered protective but nonviable.

stratum corneum

19

The glands that serve an important function in thermoregulation

sudoriferous glands

20

Hair that lacks pigment and is often called "immature hair."

vellus

21

_____ accounts for almost two-thirds of the weight of adult bone.

calcium phosphate

22

_____ fractures are completely internal; they do not break through the skin.

closed

23

When the arrestor pili muscles contract,

"goose bumps" are formed

24

_____bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.

spongy

25

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated _____.

by hormones, especially adrogens.

26

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.

27

Thin skin contains ______ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ____ layers.

4;5

28

An albino individual lacks the ability to produce

melanin

29

A child with rickets often has

bowed legs

30

The term diploe refers to the _____.

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

31

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

parathyroid hormone

32

Cranial bones develop_____

within fibrous membranes

33

synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. What is true about the fluid?

it contains hyaluronic acid

34

What is not a function of the skeletal system

communication

35

A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage

closes and heals with relatively little scarring

36

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

the osteon

37

sensible perspiration for the thermoregulation is produced by ____ glands.

eccrine

38

The function of the root hair plexus is to _____.

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation

39

Order of steps in the process of endochondral ossification

1. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a thin layer collar of bone around the hyaline cartilage model

2. Chondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify

3. Enlarged chondrocytes die

4. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium

5. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone

40

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. What are the two types?

eccrine and apocrine

41

What glands produce ear wax?

ceruminous glands

42

Vernix caseosa is a _____

whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands

43

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows_____.

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

44

The structural unit of spongy bone

trabaculae

45

THe sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated______.

by hormones, especially androgens.

46

Through the action of osteoclasts

bony matrix is dissolved

47

what kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartlige

48

Melanocystes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocystes____

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer

49

the _____ glands in the axilla becomes active in the time of puberty

(Think: axe deodorant…)

apocrine sweat.

(you would sweat a lot if you were stung by a porcupine )

50

The effects of aging on the skin include

a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands

(old people don't get zits… sebaceous glands is what makes zits)

51

the process of bones or cartilage increasing in width by growth from the surface is known as____

appositional growth

(you can get an "ap" to increase the width of your photos on instagram)

52

osteogenesis is the process of____

bone formation

(genesis always means growth osteo is obvi bone)

53

the cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bones is the

Think matrix the movie

osteoblast

lots of explosions were in the movie thus lots of blasts :)

54

the resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

(the resilience of catholic is due to the SACRIFICE of jesus on the cross and he was pretty damn boney when he died)

55

the periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called___

perforating (sharpeys) fibers

56

Which of the following statements describes interstitial growth?

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

57

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

compact bone

58

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood?

epiphyseal plate

59

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of____.

fat

60

The single most important risk for skin cancer is______.

overexposure to UV radiation

61

Best way to describe osteocyte

mature bone cell

62

Example of why hair appears the way it does

Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts

63

Cranial bones develop_____.

within fibrous membranes

64

Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include_____.

resident macrophage-like cells who function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system

65

What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

cartilage

66

Ossification of the end of long bones____.

is produced by secondary ossification centers

67

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of____.

cartilage

68

Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by

melanocytes

69

Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following except:

a. epidermis

b. sebaceous glands

c. hair follicles

d. nails

e. swear glands

epidermis