microbiology chapter 14 potential test questions

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1

in which type of symbiosis do both members benefit from their interaction?

  1. mutualism
  2. parasitism
  3. commensalism
  4. pahogenesis

a. mutualism

2

An axenic environment is one that _____________.

  1. exists in the human mouth
  2. contains only one species
  3. exists in the human colon
  4. both a and c

b. contains only one species

3

which of the following is false concerning microbial contaminants?

  1. contaminants may become opportunistic pathogens
  2. most microbial contaminants will eventually cause harm
  3. contaminants may be part of the transient microbiota
  4. contaminants may be introduced by mosquito bite

b. most microbial contaminants will eventually cause harm

4

the most frequent portal of entry for a phogen is __________

  1. the respiratory tract
  2. the skin
  3. the conjunctiva
  4. a cut or wound

a. respiratory tract

5

the process by which microorganisms attach themselves to cells is __________.

  1. infection
  2. contamination
  3. disease
  4. adhesion

d. adhesion

6

which of the following is the correct sequence of events in infectious diseases?

  1. incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence
  2. incubation, decline, prodromal period, illness, convalescence
  3. prodromal period, incubation, illness, decline, convalescence
  4. convalescence, prodromal period, incubation, illness, decline

a. incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence

7

which of the following are most likely to cause disease?

  1. opportunistic pathogens in a weakened host
  2. pathogens lacking the enzyme kinase
  3. pahogens laking the enzyme collagenase
  4. highly virulent organisms

d. highly virulent organisms

8

the nature of bacterial capsules ____________

  1. causes widespread blood clotting
  2. allows phagocytes to readily engulf these bacteria
  3. affects the virulence of the bacteria
  4. has no effect on the virulence of bacteria

c. affects the virulence of the bacteria

9

when pathogenic bacterial cells lose the ability to make adhesins, they typically _____________

  1. become avirulent
  2. produce endotoxin
  3. absorb endotoxin
  4. increase in virulence

a. become avirulent

10

a disease in which a pathogen remains inactive for a long period of tiem before becoming active is termed a(n) ________

  1. subacute disease
  2. acute disease
  3. chronic disease
  4. latent disease

d. latent disease

11

Which of the following statements is the best definition of a pandemic disease?

  1. it normally occurs in a given geographic area
  2. it is a disease that occurs more frequently than usual for a geographical area or group of people
  3. it occurs infrequently at no predictable time scattered over a large area or population
  4. it is an epidemic that occurs on more than one continent at the same time

d.

  1. it is an epidemic that occurs on more than one continent at the same time
12

Which of the following types of epidemiologists is most like a detective?

  1. a descriptive epidemiologist
  2. an analytical epidemiologist
  3. an experimental epidemiologist
  4. a reservoir epidemiologist

b. analytical epidemiologist

13

consider the following case. An animal was infected with a virus. A mosquito bit the animal, was contaminated with the virus, and proceeded to bite and infect a person. Which was the vector?

  1. animal
  2. virus
  3. mosquito
  4. person

c. mosquito

14

a patient contracted athlete's foot after long-term use of a medication. His physician explained that the malady was directly related to the medication. Such infections are termed __

  1. healthcare associated infections
  2. exogenous infections
  3. iatrogenic infections
  4. endogenous infections

d. endogenous infection

15

Which of the following phrases describes a contagious disease?

  1. a disease arising form fromites
  2. a disease that is easily passed form host to host in aerosols
  3. a disease that arises from opportunistic, normal microbiota
  4. both a and b

b. a disease that is easily passed form host to host in aerosols

16

A microbe that causes disease is called a ________________

pathogens

17

an infection that may go unnoticed because of the abscence of symptoms are called __________

asymptomatic or subclinical

18

the study of the cause of a disease is ______________

etiology

19

the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted whithin populations is _____________

epidemiology

20

diseases that are naturally spread from their usual animal hosts to humans are called _____________

zoonoses

21

nonliving reservoirs of disease, such as a toothbrush, drinking glass, and needle, are called _______________

fromites

22

____________ infections are those acquired by patients or staff while in health care facilities

noscomial

23

the total number of cases of disease in a given area is its ___________

prevalence

24

an animal that carries a pathogen and also serves as host for the pathogen is a ___________ vector

biological

25

Endotoxin, also know as __________, is part of the outer (wall) membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

lipid A