PY352 Exam Flashcards

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Around age 2.5, the video deficit effect

A) declines

B) is strongest when videos are interactive

C) increases

D)is strongest when videos are rich in social cues

Answer: A; page 124


According to the core knowledge perspective,

A) each infant's five sense permit a ready grasp of new, related information

B) babies are born with core domains of thought

C) we hold information in three parts of the mental system for processing

D) automatic processes permit us to focus on other information while performing them

Answer: B; page 125


The core knowledge perspective emphasizes the role of ______ in cognition development.

A) social interactions

B) cultural values

C) independent exploration

D) prewired understandings

Answer: D; page 125


Core knowledge theorists argue that infants' early orientation toward people initiates rapid development of _____ knowledge.

A) physical

B) linguistic

C) psychological

D) numerical

Answer: C; page 125


Research suggests that infants

A) can discriminate quantities up to three

B) do not have a basic numeric knowledge

C) can multiply and divide single-digit problems

D) experience cognitive change abruptly

Answer: A; page 125


Current research on infant cognition yields broad agreement on which of the following?

A) Most cognition changes in infancy are abrupt

B) Various aspects of infant cognition change unevenly

C) Young babies construct all mental representations out of sensorimotor activity

D) The cognitive changes of infancy are stagelike

Answer: B; page 125


Information-processing researchers

A) focus on interactions between the various core domains of thought

B) focus on general concepts, such as assimilation and accommodation, to describe how children think

C) want to know exactly what individuals of different ages do when faced with a task or problem

D) assume that learning takes place within the zone of proximal development

Answer: C; page 126


In ____, sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.

A) The sensory register

B) The short-term memory store

C) Working memory

D) Long term memory

Answer: A; page 126


In the short-term memory store,

A) sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly

B) we briefly retain and "work" on information so we can reach our goals

C) the flow of information is coordinated and directed

D) information is permanently destroyed

Answer: B; page 126


______ are so well-learned that they require no space in working memory and, therefore, permit us to focus on other information while performing them.

A) Executive functions

B) Sensory processes

C) Permanent functions

D) Automatic processes

Answer: D; page 126


In toddlerhood, sustained attention

A) declines, while attraction to novelty improves

B) is especially poor when children are distracted by play materials

C) is evident only during independent exploration

D) improves, and attraction to novelty declines

Answer: D; page 127


_____ studies show that infants learn and retain a wide variety of information just by watching objects and events, sometimes for much longer than in operant conditioning studies.

A) Deferred imitation

B) Accommodation

C) Habituation

D) Assimilation

Answer: C; page 128


_____ is the simplest form of memory, whereas ______ involves remembering something not present.

A) Recognition; recall

B) The sensory register; working memory

C) Habituation; recovery

D) Recall; recognition

Answer: A; page 128


Forty-five-year-old Nancy clearly remembers the day her youngest sibling was born, just over 40 years ago. Nancy's recollection of that day are known as

A) infantile amnesia

B) recognition memory

C) autobiographical memory

D) working memory

Answer: C; page 129


Most adults and older children cannot remember events that happened before the age of 3 because

A) they cannot translate early preverbal memories into language

B) early memories are stored in an explicit memory system that is too difficult to recall

C) long-term memory does not emerge until around age 7

D) they have most likely forgotten these early memories due to the passage of time


Answer: A; page 129


Research suggests that ______ contributes to the end of infantile amnesia.

A) growth of the temporal lobe

B) the advent of a clear self image

C) an increase in memory capacity

D) exposure to child-directed speech

Answer: B; page 129


Babies begin to categorize on the basis of two correlated features by __ months of age.

A) 3

B) 6

C) 9

D) 12

Answer: B; page 128


By the end of the second half of the first year, babies' categories appear to be based on

A) similar overall appearances

B) prominent object part

C) common behaviors

D) subtle sets of features

Answer: D; page 128


Which of the following statements about the information-processing perspective is true?

A) It is easily integrated into a broad comprehensive theory of development

B) It emphasizes that children live in rich social and cultural contexts that affect their cognitive development

C) Its central strength--analyzing cognition into its components--is also its greatest drawback

D) Its core domains of thought yield broad agreement among researchers.

Answer: C; page 130


According to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory,

A) children master activities through joint activities with more mature members of their societies

B) complex mental activities have their origin in perception, attention, and memory

C) adaption and organization account for changes in children's schemes

D) babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems

Answer: A; page 130


The zone of proximal development

A) includes core domains of though, such as physical knowledge, linguistic knowledge, psychological knowledge, and numerical knowledge

B) refers to a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of more skilled partners

C) is a Piagetian concept that provides that infants stumble onto new experiences and then actively try to repeat it

D) helps identify for intervention babies who are likely to have developmental problems

Answer: B; page 130


In a Vygotskian classroom, as a child's competence increases, the adult

A) guides and supports the child by modeling the task

B) introduces the child to a new activity

C) enters the zone of proximal development by taking over the child's task

D) steps back, permitting the child to take more responsibility for the task

Answer: D; page 130


In Western middle-SES infant and toddler play, adults and children tend to focues their attention on

A) categorizing objects

B) a single event

C) following rules

D) several events at once

Answer: B; page 131


Vygotsky believed that

A) toddlers discover make-believe play independently, once they are capable of representational schemes.

B) society provides children with opportunities to represent culturally meaningful activities in play

C) make-believe play is less rich in collectivist cultures

D) almost all play episodes during the first half of the second year are initiated by children

Answer: B; page 131


When adults participate, toddlers' make-believe

A) tends to focus on repetitive actions.

B) is less elaborate

C) is more elaborate

D) tends to focus on rule following

Answer: C; page 131


In cultures where sibling caregiving is common, make-believe is more frequent and complex with _____ than with _____.

A) fathers; siblings

B) mothers; siblings

C) older siblings; mothers

D) non-related agemates; family members

Answer: C; page 131


Most mental tests focus on

A) the process of development

B) cognitive products

C) how children's thinking changes

D) environmental influences on intelligence

Answer: B; page 132


Most infant intelligence tests emphasize _____ and _____.

A) concept; memory

B) memory; mental representations

C) perceptual responses; motor responses

D) attention; categorization

Answer: C; page 132


Superintendant Hastings has asked all teachers in her school district to administer student intelligence tests. If performances at each age level formed a normal distribution, the results were probably ____-shaped.

A) U

B) bell

C) L

D) triangle

Answer: B; page 132


The rise in body fat during the first year of life

A) insulates infants' brittle bones until proper cartilage is formed

B) helps infants keep a constant body temperature

C) cushions infants from bumps and falls

D) slows the development of fine-motor skills

Answer: B; page 92


In the second year, most toddlers

A) slim down

B) gain about 15 pounds

C) grow about 8 inches

D) reach a peak in muscle tissue

Answer: A; page 92


During infancy, girls

A) are slightly taller than boys

B) are slightly heavier than boys

C) have a higher ratio of fat to muscle than boys

D) have less mature bones than boys

Answer: C; page 92


Which of the following children is most likely to be above the growth norm?

A) Mai, an Asian girl

B) Isaiah, an African-American boy

C) Eleanor, a Caucasian girl

D) Nygen, an Asian boy

Answer: B; page 92


Skeletal age is measured by determining

A) muscle and bone strength

B) the length of the long bones

C) the extent to which cartilage has hardened into bone

D) joint flexibility

Answer: C; page 92


When skeletal ages are examined,

A) boys are considerably ahead of girls

B) girls are considerably ahead of boys

C) there are no discernible sex differences

D) there are no discernible ethnic differences

Answer: B; page 92


The cephalocaudal trend in physical growth is illistrated by

A) earlier growth of the arms and legs than of the chest and trunk

B) later growth of the arms and legs than of the hands and feet

C) earlier growth of the legs and feet than of the arms and hands

D) later growth of the trunk and legs than of the head and chest

Answer: D; page 93


In the proximodistal trend, during infancy and childhood, the

A) head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body

B) body grows from "head to tail"

C) arms and legs grow somewhat ahead of the feet

D) hands and feet grow more rapidly than the arms and the legs

Answer: C; page 93


At birth, the ____ is nearer to adult size than any other physical structure.

A) brain

B) heart

C) femur

D) liver

Answer: A; page 93



A) are gaps between body cells

B) are tightly packed together

C) are responsible for myelination

D) store and transmit information

Answer: D; page 94


Synapses are

A) tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch

B) nerve cells that store and transmit information

C) chemicals released by neurons

D) responsible for myelination

Answer: A; page 94


In the prenatal period, neurons

A) undergo mitosis

B) are produced in the embryo's primitive neural tube

C) have not yet developed any connective fibers

D) are seldom stimulated

Answer: B; page 94



A) cannot cross synapses

B) are the tiny gaps between neurons

C) are responsible for myelination

D) are message-carrying chemicals released by neurons

Answer: D; page 94


When Baby Jaleel was born, stimulation in his brain resulted in a massive overabundance of synapses. As synapses formed, many surrounding neurons died. This process is known as

A) myelination

B) neurotransmission

C) neuroimaging

D) programmed cell death

Answer: D; page 94


As a result of synaptic pruning,

A) seldom-stimulated neurons lose their synapses

B) stimulated neurons reproduce themselves

C) overstimulated neurons lose their synapses

D) overstimulated neurons die

Answer: A; page 94


For synaptic pruning to advance,

A) the neural tube must produce fewer neurons during the prenatal period than the brain will need

B) the prefrontal cortex must attain adult levels of synaptic connections during the prenatal period

C) appropriate stimulation of the child's brain is vital during periods in which the formation of synapses is at its peak

D) between 80 to 90 percent of the neurons produced during the first two years must undergo programmed cell death

Answer: C; page 94


Glial cells

A) are responsible for myelination

B) store and transmit information

C) are the tiny gaps between neurons

D) carry messages between neurons

Answer: A; page 94


Myelination involves

A) sending messages from one neuron to another

B) making space for synapses

C) coating the neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath

D) returning neurons not needed to an uncommitted state

Answer: C; page 94


Brain development in infancy and toddlerhood is

A) often characterized by a series of discrete stages

B) jointly influenced by genetically programmed events and the child's experiences

C) slow and steady, and mostly influence by genetically programmed events

D) primarily influenced by the child's experience with the environment

Answer: B; page 94


In an electroencephalogram (EEG),

A) the person lies inside a tunnel-shaped apparatus that creates a magnetic field

B) the person inhales or is given an injection of a radioactive substance, and then lies on an apparatus with a scanner that emits fine streams of x-rays

C) brain-wave patterns are examined for stability and organization--signs of mature cortical functioning

D) when an individual is exposed to a stimulus, the EEG detects changes in blood flow and oxygen metabolism throughout the brain magnetically.

Answer: C; page 94


Mia, age 3, is about to undergo a neurobiological exam. The doctor wishes to examine the functioning of Mia's cerebral cortex to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism. The best method for the doctor to choose in Mia's case is probably

A) an electroencephalogram (EEG)

B) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

C) positron emission tomography (PET)

D) near-infrared spectroscopy

Answer: D; page 95


The _____ accounts for 85% of the brain's weight.

A) cerebellum

B) cerebrum

C) corpus callosum

D) cerebral cortex

Answer: D; page 95


The cerebral cortex

A) contains a small number of neurons and synapses

B) is not sensitive to environmental influence

C) is the last part of the brain to stop growing

D) is the smallest brain structure

Answer: C; page 95


The auditory and visual cortexes develop rapidly during

A) the first year

B) the second year

C) the preschool years

D) adolescence

Answer: A; page 96


The prefrontal cortex

A) controls body movement

B) is responsible for thought

C) functions mosts effectively during the prenatal period

D) reaches an adult level of synaptic connections during the preschool years

Answer: B; page 96


In most people, the right hemisphere handles

A) spoken language

B) spatial abilities

C) positive emotion

D) written language

Answer: B; page 96


In left handed people, the

A) the right hemisphere always handles spatial abilities

B) cerebral cortex may be less clearly specialized than in right-handed people

C) left hemisphere is always responsible for positive emotion

D) left hemisphere is always responsible for verbal abilities

Answer: B; page 96


A lateralized brain

A) is more common in left-handed than in right-handed individuals

B) is more effective at regulating emotion than a nonlateralized brain

C) means that many areas of the cerebral cortex are nor yet committed to specific functions

D) permits a wider array of functions to be carried out effectively

Answer: D; page 96


A ______ plastic cerebral cortex has a ______ capacity for learning.

A) slightly; high

B) highly; low

C) slightly; moderate

D) highly; high

Answer: D; page 96


Before the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize,

A) damage to a particular region means that the abilities it normally controls are lost forever

B) other parts can take over the tasks that would have been handled by a damaged region

C) each hemisphere controls only one side of the body

D) each hemisphere receives sensory information from only that side of the body

Answer: B; page 96


In social referencing, toddlers

A) use the signals of trusted adults to guide their own actions

B) simply react to others' emotional messages

C) use the emotional contagion process to respond to others' emotional messages

D) match the feeling tone of the caregiver in face-to-face communication

Answer: A; page 146


Which of the following are self-conscious emotions?

A) guilt, shame, and pride

B) shame, doubt, and surprise

C) embarrassment, pride, and interest

D) envy, happiness, and disgust

Answer: A; page 147


Self-conscious emotions

A) are universal in humans and primates

B) involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self

C) include happiness, sadness, envy, and pride

D) first appear in the middle o the first year

Answer: B; page 147


Two-year-old Eason hits a playmate when she takes his toy. When the caregiver tells Easton's mother about the incident, Easton lowers his eyes and hides his face with his hands. Easton is expressing

A) shame

B) envy

C) empathy

D) pride

Answer: A; page 147


In Western individualistic nations, most children are taught to feel

A) embarrassed by attention received for achievements

B) ashamed by failing to show concern for others

C) pride in person achievements

D) guilty for winning a competition

Answer: C; page 147


Emotional self-regulation

A) is a built in, automatic process that governs emotional response

B) involves actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person

C) does not emerge until the preschool years

D) involves the use of strategies to adjust an emotion state to a comfortable level of intensity

Answer: D; page 147


Joan, who does not like being scared, decides not to see a horror movie with her friends. Joan is using

A) emotional contagion

B) self-conscious emotions

C) basic emotions

D) emotional self-regulation

Answer: D; page 147


The capacity for voluntary, effortful management of emotions

A) improves as a result of the development of the prefrontal cortex

B) is present at birth

C) emerges suddenly around 8 to 10 months

D) cannot be modified by learned strategies

Answer: A; page 147


Believing that he is teaching his 6-month-old daughter to "self-soothe," Reed waits to intervene until she becomes extremely agitated. If Reed continues to respond in this matter, his daughter will most likely be

A) less fussy and fearful

B) more anxious and reactive

C) more interested in exploration

D) easier to soothe

Answer: B; page 148


______ have a harder time regulating negative emotion.

A) Girls

B) Only children

C) Boys

D) Twins

Answer: C; page 148


Which of the following statements about emotional self-regulation is true?

A) Collectivist cultures place less emphasis on socially appropriate emotional behavior than individualistic cultures.

B) Girls get more training than boys in suppressing negative emotion.

C) By the end of the first year, Chinese and Japanese infants smile and cry less than American infants.

D) By the end of the first year, Chinese and Japanese infants smile and cry more than American infants.

Answer: C; page 148


Temperament refers to

A) quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity

B) the strategies we use to adjust out emotional state to a comfortable state of intensity

C) early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation

D) emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of our sense of self

Answer: C; page 148


______ refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity.

A) Temperament

B) Reactivity

C) Effortful control

D) Self-regulation

Answer: B; page 148


According to Thomas and Chess, an easy child

A) is irregular in daily routines and tends to react negatively and intensely.

B) quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and adapts easily to new experiences.

C) is inactive and show mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli.

D) is generally cheerful and is slow accept new experiences

Answer: B; page 148


Maris is inactive, show mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. According to Thomas and Chess, Maris would be classified as a(n) _____ child.

A) uninhibited

B) difficult

C) slow-to-warm-up

D) inhibited

Answer: C; page 148


Nathan is irregular in daily routines, is generally cheerful, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. In Thomas and Chess's research, Nathan would

A) be classified as a slow-to-warm-up child

B) be classified as an easy child

C) be classified as a difficult child

D) not fit in any temperament category

Answer: D; page 148


_______ are at high risk for adjustments problems.

A) Easy children

B) Difficult children

C) Slow-to-warm-up children

D) Children who do not fit in any of Thomas and Chess's temperament categories

Answer: B; page 148


_______ tend to show excessive fearfulness and slow, constricted behavior in the late preschool and school years.

A) Slow-to-warm-up children

B) Difficult children

C) Easy children

D) Children who do not fit in any of Thomas and Chess's temperament categories

Answer: A; page 148


_______ is the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response.

A) Fearful distress

B) Effortful control

C) Goodness of fit

D) Self-awareness

Answer: B; page 149


According to Mary Rothbart, variations in _______ are evident in how effectively a child can focus and shift attention, inhibit impulses, and manage negative emotion.

A) threshold of responsiveness

B) adaptability

C) irritable distress

D) effortful control

Answer: D; page 149


Which of the following statements about measuring temperament is true?

A) In homes, observers find it easier to capture rare but important events.

B) Observations by researchers in the home or laboratory are usually more subjective than parental reports.

C) Parental reports tend to be the most accurate

D) Researchers can better control children's experiences in a laboratory

Answer: D; page 149


In Jerome Kagan's longitudinal research study on the development of shyness and sociability,

A) the majority of babies were overwhelmed by novelty

B) most children's dispositions became less extreme over time

C) most children retain their temperamental style as they grew older

D) only about 10% of 4-month-old babies seemed delighted with new experiences

Answer: B; page 150


Neurobiological research indicates that when faced with novelty, shy children show

A) greater pupil dilation than sociable children

B) greater left than right frontal brain wave activity

C) a lower heart rate than sociable children

D) a greater drop in blood pressure than sociable children.

Answer: A; page 150


To acquire effective social skills, inhibited children need

A) permissive child rearing

B) protective parents who allow them to retreat as desired

C) parenting tailored to their temperament

D) to be exposed to increasingly stressful social situations

Answer: C; page 150


Research on the stability of temperament shows that

A) children's emotional styles are largely stable across childhood

B) experience rarely, if ever, modifies children's temperaments

C) children at the extremes are least likely to maintain their emotion styles over time

D) the overall stability of temperament is low to moderate

Answer: D; page 149


Observation of which of the following children is the most likely to provide a researcher with the most accurate long-term prediction of temperament?

A) Quinn, a newborm

B) Ava, age 12 months

C) Samantha, 25 months

D) Tyson, age 4

Answer: D; page 149


Compared with American Caucasian infants, Chinese and Japanese babies tend to be

A) more fearful

B) more active

C) less inhibited

D) less easily soothed when upset

Answer: A; page 151


Compared with girls, boy are

A) less daring

B) more irritable when frustrated

C) slightly less impulsive

D) better at effortful control

Answer: B; page 151


Research addressing environmental influences on temperament indicates that

A) parents perceive boys and girls differently

B) boys are encouraged to seek physical closeness to parents

C) parents tend to view siblings as more distinct in temperament than other observers do

D) the environment has a greater impact than genetic factors on temperament

Answer: C; page 151