Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

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1

A closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart

Blood Vessels

2

The 3 major types of blood vessels are

  • Arteries
  • Capillaries
  • Veins
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A blood vessel that carries blood AWAY from the heart

Arteries

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A blood vessel that carries blood TOWARD to the heart

Veins

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The innermost tunic of a blood vessels, that contains endothelium, is called

Tunica Intima

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The middle tunic of a blood vessel, which is mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin, is called

Tunica Media

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Narrowing of blood vessels

Vasoconstriction

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Relaxation of the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, producing dilation

Vasodilation

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The bulkiest layer of the blood vessels

Tunica Media

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The outermost layer of a blood vessel wall, which is composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel is called

Tuncia Externa

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Arteries can be divided into three groups

  • Elastic Arteries
  • Muscular Arteries
  • Arterioles
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The thick-walled arteries near the heart, such as the aorta and its major branches

Elastic Arteries

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Arteries that deliver blood to specific body organs

Muscular Arteries

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The smallest of the arteries

Arterioles

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The smallest blood vessels

Capillaries

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The average length of capillaries are

1mm

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There are three types of capillaries

  • Continuous
  • Fenestrated
  • Sinusoid
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These capillaries are the most abundant in the skin and muscles

Continuous Capillaries

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Similar to continuous capillaries, these capillaries are riddled with oval pores, or fenestrations

Fenestrations

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Leaky capillaries found only in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and adrenal medulla

Sinusoid Capillaries

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Form interweaving networks of capillaries

Capillaries Bed

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The flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule

Microcirculation

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A short vessel that directly connects the arteriole and venule at opposite ends of the bed

Vascular Shunt

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Actual exchange vessels

True Capillaries

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A small vein

Venule

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A minute artery

Arteriole

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Blood vessesls that carry blood from the capillary beds toward the heart

Veins

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Valves formed from folds of the tunica intima of veins

Venous Valves

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Special interconnections formed by blood vessels

Vascular Anastomoses

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Merged arteries that supply the same area of an organ

Arterial Anastomoses

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The volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period (ml/min)

Blood Flow

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The force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood; expressed in mm Hg

Blood Pressure

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The opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through the vessel

Resistance

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There are three important sources of resistance

  • Blood Viscosity - the thickness or "stickiness" of blood
  • Vessel Length - the longer the blood vessel, the greater the resistance
  • Vessel Diameter - the smaller the diameter of a blood vessel, the greater the resistance
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When blood pressure increase

blood flow speeds up

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When peripheral resistance increase

blood flow decrease

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Formula for blood flow

card image
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Systemic blood pressure is highest

in the aorta

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Arterial blood pressure reflects two factors

  • How much the elastic arteries close the heart can stretch
  • The volume of blood forced into them at any time
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Pressure exerted by blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions

Systolic Pressure

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Period when either the ventricles or the atria are contracting

Systole

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Period of the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or the atria are relaxing

Diastole

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Arterial blood pressure reached during or as a result of diastole;

Diastolic Pressure

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The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures

Pulse Pressure