Anatomy Test 2 Flashcards


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1

three types of muscles (cardiac,skeletal,smooth), functions, where they are found

Skeletal- organs attached to bones and skin, striated,voluntary,require nervous system stimulation

Cardiac- only in heart, bulk of heart walls, striated, involuntary

Smooth- in walls of hollow organs(stomach,urinary bladder, airways), not striated, involuntary

2

understand that muscles exhibit excitability, contractility,extensibility,elasticity

Excitability- ability to receive and respond to stimuli

Contractility- ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated

Extensibility- ability to be stretched

Elasticity- ability to recoil to resting length

3

four important functions of muscles

1. movement of bones or fluids(blood)

2. maintaining posture and body position

3. stabilizing joints

4. heat generation (especially skeletal muscle)

4

describe connective tissue sheaths that support muscles and the part they cover

Epimysium- dense irregular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle; may blend with fasccia
Perimysium- fibrous connective tissue surrounding fasicicles(groups of muscle fibers)
Endomysium- fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

5

difference between a muscle insertion and origin

a muscle insertion is a movable bone and an origin is immovable (less movable) bone

6

why skeletal muscles have a striated appearance

Sarcomeres

7

how the sliding filament model of muscle contraction works

During contraction, thin filaments slide past thick filaments--> actin and myosin overlap more
- Occurs when myosin heads bind to actin-->cross bridges
-Myosin heads bind to actin; sliding begins
• Cross bridges form and
break several times,
ratcheting thin filaments toward
center of sarcomere
- Causes shortening of
muscle fiber
- Pulls Z discs toward M
line

8

structure of the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments

...

9

role of troponin and tropomyosin in muscle contraction

Troponin changes shape and moves tropomyosin away from myosin-binding sites

Tropomyosin blocks active sites on actin

10

how signal travels from a motor neuron to a muscle fiber

Action potential (AP) arrives at axon
terminal at neuromuscular junction
-->
ACh released; binds to receptors
on sarcolemma
-->
Ion permeability of sarcolemma changes
-->
Local change in membrane voltage
(depolarization) occurs
-->
Local depolarization (end plate
potential) ignites AP in sarcolemma

11

what happens during excitation-contraction coupling

1. The action potential (AP) propagates along the sarcolemma and down the T tubules.

2. Calcium ions are released.

3.Calcium binds to troponin and removes the blocking action of tropomyosin.

4.Contraction begins: Myosin binding to actin forms cross bridges and contraction (cross bridge cycling) begins. At this point, E-C coupling is over.

12

role of an action potential in releasing calcium ions from the SR

The axon branches to supply a number of muscle fibers called a motor unit, and the action potential is conveyed to a motor end plate on each muscle fiber.

(4) At the motor end plate, the action potential causes the release of packets or quanta of acetylcholine into the synaptic clefts on the surface of the muscle fiber.

(5) Acetylcholine causes the electrical resting potential under the motor end plate to change, and this then initiates an action potential which passes in both directions along the surface of the muscle fiber.

(6) At the opening of each transverse tubule onto the muscle fiber surface, the action potential spreads inside the muscle fiber.

(7) At each point where a transverse tubule touches part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, it causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca++ ions.

(8) The calcium ions result in movement of troponin and tropomyosin on their thin filaments, and this enables the myosin molecule heads to "grab and swivel" their way along the thin filament. This is the driving force of muscle contraction

13

Describe events that occur during the cross bridge cycle

  1. Cross bridge formation. Energized myosin head attaches to an actin myofilament, forming a cross bridge.
  2. The power (working) stroke. ADP and Pi are released and the myosin head pivots and bends, changing to its bent low-energy state. As a result it pulls the actin filament toward the M line.
  3. Cross bridge detachment. After ATP attaches to myosin, the link between myosin and actin weakens, and the myosin head detaches (the cross bridge “breaks”).
  4. Cocking of the myosin head. As ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi, the myosin head returns to its prestroke high-energy, or “cocked,” position
14

explain factors that can affect the force of muscle contraction

Force of contraction depends on number of cross bridges attached, which is affected by:

– Number of muscle fibers stimulated (recruitment)

– Relative size of fibers— hypertrophy of cells increases strength

– Frequency of stimulation

– Degree of muscle stretch

15

how the longitundinal and circular layers of smooth muscle work together to move substances through hollow organs

• Longitudinal layer

– Fibers parallel to long axis of organ; contraction--> dilates and shortened

• Circular layer

– Fibers in circumference of organ; contracion-->constricts lumen, elongates organ

• Allows peristalsis - Alternating contractions and relaxations of smooth muscle layers that mix and squeeze substances through lumen of hollow organs

16

types of valves found in the heart, where they are found, and how they function

• Two atrioventricular (AV) valves – Prevent backflow into atria when ventricles contract

– Tricuspid valve (right AV valve)

– Mitral valve (left AV valve, bicuspid valve)

– Chordae tendineae anchor cusps to papillary muscles • Hold valve flaps in closed position

• Two semilunar (SL) valves – Prevent backflow into ventricles when ventricles relax – Open and close in response to pressure changes

– Aortic semilunar valve – Pulmonary semilunar valve

17

Which of the following components accounts for the bulk of muscle fiber volume (up to 80%)?

A. Glycosomes

B. Mitochondria

C. Myofibrils

D. Sarcoplasm

Myofibrilis

18

The thin filaments are not comprised of which of the following components?

A. Actin

B. Titin

C. Troponin

D. Tropomyosin

Titin

19

At the neuromuscular junction, the muscle contraction initiation event is ______.

A. a release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reIculum

B. conducIon of an electrical impulse down the T tubules

C. binding of acetylcholine to membrane receptors on the sarcolemma

D. sliding of actin and myosin filaments past each other

binding of acetylcholine to membrane receptors on the sarcolemma

20

The time period between action potential initiation and mechanical activity of a muscle fiber is called the ______.

A. latent period

B. refractory period

C. action potential

D. excitation period

latent period

21

What is the significance of the muscle fiber triad relationship?

A. The terminal cisterns subdivide the sarcolemma.

B. The T tubules bring calcium to the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

C. The sarcoplasmic reticulum transfers calcium to the T tubules.

D. The T tubules conduct electrical impulses that stimulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reIculum

The T tubules conduct electrical impulses that stimulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reIculum

22

What is calcium's function during muscle contraction?

A. Calcium binds to troponin, changing its shape and removing the blocking action of tropomyosin.

B. Calcium binds to troponin to prevent myosin from attaching to actin.

C. Calcium depolarizes the muscle fiber.

D. Calcium flows down the T tubules to stimulate the influx of sodium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Calcium binds to troponin, changing its shape and removing the blocking action of tropomyosin.

23

In a resting muscle cell, the myosin-binding sites are blocked by ______.

A. actin

B. troponin

C. titin

D. tropomyosin

tropmyosin

24

Calcium is released from the terminal cisterns in response to ______.

A. ATP

B. calcium pumps

C. an action potential

D. troponin

an action potential

25

How does calcium reenter the terminal cisterns after muscle contraction is finished?

A. Diffusion

B. Active transport

C. Filtration

D. Endocytosis

active transport

26

starting with the right atrium, the pathway of blood through the heart, to the lungs, back to the heart, to the rest of the body, and back to the heart

...

27

how the differences in pressure in the pulmonary and systemic circuits are reflected in the differences in heart anatomy

...

28

the differences and similarities of cardiac and skeletal muscle

...

29

the phases of the cardiac cycle, from the atrial systole to ventricular diastole

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30

three wall layers found in arteries and veins

...

31

primary function of capillaries

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32

3 types of capillaries and where they are found

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33

how and under what conditions, blood flow is regulated through capillary beds

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34

three sources of resistance described in lecture

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35

relationship between blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance

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36

how blood pressure changes throughout systemic circulation

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37

why low capillary pressure is desirable

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38

the factors that aid the return of blood to the heart through the venous system

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39

how blood pressure is measured

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40

the function of blood flow through body tissues (tissue perfusion)

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