Mgmt 3720 Test 2

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1

According to Gordon Allport, BLANK is defined as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person's unique adjustments to his/her environment.

personality

2

Who defined personality as the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine a person's unique adjustments to his/her environment?

Gordon Allport

3

BLANK is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.

Personality

4

Esther Lugo has gone for an interview at an advertising firm in Manhattan and has been asked to complete a self-report survey to help interviewers understand if she is the right candidate for the job. From the interview, they have found that she is extroverted, empathic, scrupulous, and cooperative in nature, which are key characteristics needed for the job. These characteristics about Lugo indicate her BLANK .

personality

5

Which of the following is the most common means of measuring personality?

self-report surveys

6

Which of the following is a drawback of self-report surveys?

They may result in the respondent lying to create a good impression.

7

In BLANK a co-worker or another observer does an independent assessment of personality, with or without the subject's knowledge.

observer-ratings surveys

8

Tracy Winter works at a publishing firm in London and recently received an e-mail from the human resource department of her company asking her to study the behavior of a colleague, Cindy Camp, including her attention toward her work, without Camp’s knowledge. Winter now needs to scrutinize Camp's behavior and notice if she is free from distractions and pays sufficient attention to her tasks. Which of the following is Winter conducting?

observer-ratings survey

9

Which of the following terms refers to factors such as one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup determined at conception?

heredity

10

Which of the following statements is true about personality?

Personality is influenced by hereditary factors.

11

Which of the following does the heredity approach state?

An individual's personality is determined by molecular structure of the genes.

12

The BLANK is a personality assessment consisting of 100 questions where respondents are classified as extraverted or introverted, sensing or intuitive, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

13

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the BLANK type are practical and prefer routine and order and focus on details.

sensing

14

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the BLANK type are flexible and spontaneous

introverted

15

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type BLANK

prefer their world to be ordered

16

Which of the following are characteristics of the intuitive type of people according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

rely on unconscious processes and look at the overall picture

17

Ellen Athers works as a communication executive at a travel house. She is known to be friendly with her colleagues and interacts with them regularly to build strong work relationships. She knows that her rapport with her co-workers is a crucial part of her work and invests time in these relationships. In addition, she is assertive in making decisions, and colleagues take her decisions seriously. Which of the following types is Athers most likely to be characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

extraverted

18

Elaine Chamberlain works as a research executive at an environmental organization. Though her colleagues are helpful and friendly, because of her shy nature, she often eats her lunch at her desk and has limited interactions with them. She is glad that her nature of work does not require her to interact with her co-workers to a high extent. Which of the following types is Chamberlain most likely to be characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

introverted

19

Valerie Sinclair, a climate campaigner at an environmental organization, invariably uses rationale to make decisions for project implementation. She believes that the right decisions can be made only through scrutiny and analysis. Each time she needs to make a decision, she weighs all options before taking action. Which of the following is a characteristic of Sinclair's personality type according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

thinking

20

Amber Downing, a human resource executive, is in charge of the recruitment process in her organization. During the hiring process, she often needs to coordinate with prospective employees. The organizational process does not require her to inform employees who do not get through the selection process. However she believes that it is rude not to give them an update. She thus makes sure that she sends them e-mails informing them about the selection process. Which of the following types is Downing characterized as according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification?

feeling

21

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type of people are BLANK

visionaries

22

People with an ESTJ personality type are characterized as BLANK according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification.

decisive

23

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people with an ENTP personality type are most likely to be BLANK

innovative

24

What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of "E or I" stand for?

extraverted/introverted

25

What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of S versus N stand for?

sensing/intuitive

26

What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of personality?

It forces a person to be categorized as either one type or another.

27

The BLANK is a personality assessment model that taps basic dimensions which encompass most of the significant variation in human personality, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.

Big Five model

28

Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others?

agreeableness

29

Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability?

conscientiousness

30

According to the Big Five model, a highly conscientious person is most likely to be BLANK .

responsible, organized, and dependable

31

According to the Big Five model, a person who scores BLANK is easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.

low on conscientiousness

32

Which of the following dimensions of the Big Five model indicates a person's ability to withstand stress?

emotional stability

33

According to the Big Five model, the BLANK dimension addresses a range of interests and fascination with novelty.

openness to experience

34

Marina Lyon works as a reservation executive at a travel and tourism company. Though her job requires her only to efficiently book flight tickets for customers, she has also opted to undergo training to learn the process of hotel reservations. In addition, every evening she reads travelogues to be aware of upcoming travel destinations and trends. She loves the industry she works in and is eager to learn as much as she can. Considering the information given in this case, which dimension of the Big Five model best describes Lyon's personality?

openness to experience

35

BLANK has been found to be more important than other traits in the success of CEOs of private equity companies.

Conscientiousness

36

Which of the following is most likely to be a drawback of highly conscientious people according to the Big Five model?

They do not adapt well to changing contexts.

37

Among the Big Five model traits, BLANK is most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and low stress levels.

emotional stability

38

With reference to the Big Five Model, which of the following is a difference between highly agreeable and less agreeable people?

Highly agreeable people tend to do better in interpersonally oriented jobs than less agreeable people.

39

Which of the following differentiates introverts from extraverts?

Introverts are less impulsive than extraverts.

40

) People scoring high on the BLANK dimension of the Big Five model are more likely to be absent from work and engage in risky behavior than those who score low.

extraversion

41

BLANK refers to bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.

Core self-evaluation

42

Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self-evaluations?

They are committed to their goals and set ambitious goals.

43

Which of the following personality traits indicates the degree to which a person is unemotional and pragmatic and believes that ends can justify means?

Machiavellianism

44

A high Mach would be most productive in which of the following positions?

a sales person whose major part of the salary consists of sales commission

45

BLANK refers to the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.

Narcissism

46

During an annual review, Michel Godfrey made the following assertion: "When I look at myself and my performance, I see that what I have achieved is outstanding and something no one in the organization has the capacity to undertake. Surprisingly, it has not won me the admiration of my colleagues like it should have. I also believe that I do not just deserve a raise, but need one, since without me, let's face it, the place would simply fall apart." Which of the following personality traits best describes Michel's personality?

narcissism

47

Which of the following is true about narcissists?

They are more likely to emerge as leaders.

48

Individuals scoring BLANK have a strong ability to adjust their behavior to external, situational factors and can behave differently in different situations

high on self-monitoring

49

Individuals low in self-monitoring BLANK

tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation

50

As compared to high self-monitors, low self-monitors BLANK

are less likely to emerge as leaders

51

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken Kate's chances of being selected?

Kate is socially inept and tends to display her true disposition and attitude in every situation.

52

Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen Kate's chances of being selected?

Kate is enterprising and adept at interacting with diverse groups of individuals.

53

John Hardley recently joined as marketing director of H2O, a water sports gear company. Though in the last five years the company has had a drastic dip in sales, ever since Hardley has joined he has turned the figures around. In addition to revamping the look of the brand, he has initiated several marketing campaigns through broadcast media to increase customer base for the company. Over the past 6 months, Hardley has managed to get the company to an all-time high peak of sales. Which of the following statements best describes Hardley?

Hardley has a proactive personality.

54

Those with a BLANK personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.

proactive

55

Which of the following statements is most likely to be true regarding people with proactive personalities?

They are more likely than others to be seen as leaders.

56

Which of the following, if true, would reduce the likelihood that Bryan will be selected?

Bryan does not cope very well in ambiguous situations.

57

Which of the following, if true, would increase the likelihood that Bryan will be selected?

Bryan is quite sociable and can "think on his feet."

58

Which of the following terms describes basic convictions that "a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct"?

values

59

When we rank an individual's values in order of their BLANK we obtain the person's value system.

intensity

60

Which of the following is true regarding values?

They have content and intensity attributes.

61

Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), which consists of two sets of values, namely BLANK values and BLANK values.

instrumental; terminal

62

According to the Rokeach Value Survey, BLANK values refer to desirable end-states.

terminal

63

According to the Rokeach Value Survey, BLANK values refer to preferable modes of behavior

instrumental

64

Which of the following is a terminal value according to the Rokeach Value Survey?

social recognition

65

Which of the following is an instrumental value according to the Rokeach Value Survey?

personal discipline

66

Which of the following is true regarding the baby boomer generation?

They give high importance to achievement and material success.

67

John Holland's personality-job fit theory presents six personality types. Which of the following is one of these six types?

investigative

68

With reference to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the realistic type will be most suitable for the job of a(n) BLANK

mechanic

69

Help Aid, a non-profit organization in Indonesia, works at providing education in underdeveloped countries. They are now looking to hire a teacher who can educate children in Namibia and prepare them for jobs which will enable them to sustain themselves. According to Holland's personality-job fit theory, people belonging to which of the following personality types will best suit Help Aid's requirement?

social

70

With reference to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the BLANK type prefer verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain powers.

enterprising

71

With reference to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the investigating type prefer BLANK

activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding

72

With reference to the Hofstede's framework, a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility is more likely to exist in a nation that scores BLANK

high on power distance

73

Alex was sent to Beijing to help local managers solve the problem of growing worker dissatisfaction at their manufacturing facility located in the city. As part of his visit, he decided to have a town hall meeting with the workers to understand the problems that they were facing and the reasons for their discontent. The turnout at the meeting was substantial; however, when asked for their opinions and suggestions, the crowd fell silent. As a result, Alex was unable to determine the reason for employee dissatisfaction. Which of the following, if true, best explains this situation?

There is an unequal distribution of power in the company.

74

With reference to the Hofstede's Framework for Assessing Cultures, BLANK emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.

collectivism

75

According to Hofstede's framework, BLANK indicates the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.

uncertainty avoidance

76

A drawback of self-report surveys is the level of accuracy.

T

77

As compared to observer-ratings surveys, self-reporting surveys are a better predictor of success on the job.

F

78

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the judging type prefer control and like their world to be ordered and structured.

T

79

According to the Big Five model, the agreeableness dimension refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others.

T

80

The conscientiousness dimension of the Big Five model captures a person's comfort level with relationships.

F

81

According to the Big Five model, a drawback of introverts is that they tend to be more impulsive than extraverts and engage in risky behavior.

F

82

People with positive core self-evaluations feel that they are powerless over their environment.

F

83

High Machs do exceptionally well in jobs which are administrative in nature and do not involve face-to-face communication.

F

84

High Mach employees win in the short term, but lose the gains in the long term because they are not well liked.

T

85

The degree to which norms, cues, or standards dictate appropriate behavior is known as consistency.

F

86

Research suggests that personality traits better predict behavior in weak situations than in strong ones.

T

87

An organization in a dynamic and changing environment that needs employees who can easily change tasks and teams should seek individuals with personalities that fit with the organization's overall culture rather than with a specific task.

T

88

Values contain a judgmental element in which they carry an individual's ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable.

T

89

An individual's value system is obtained by ranking the person's values in terms of their intensity.

T

90

Millennials have high expectations, seek meaning in their work, and have life goals oriented toward becoming rich and famous.

T

91

According to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the realistic type are disorderly, impractical, and emotional.

F

92

According to John Holland's personality-job fit theory, individuals belonging to the conventional type prefer ambiguous activities that allow creative expression.

F

93

According to Hofstede's framework, individualism describes the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.

F

94

According to Hofstede's five value dimensions of national culture, people in a culture with long-term orientation look to the future and value thrift, persistence, and tradition.

T

95

BLANK is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

Perception

96

Which of the following statements is true regarding perception?

Our perception of reality can be different from the objective reality.

97

When two people witness something at the same time and in the same situation yet interpret it differently, factors that operate to shape their perceptions reside in the BLANK

perceivers

98

David Myers is of the opinion that people who drive SUVs are rash drivers. He feels that people driving SUVs do not respect road rules and always violate traffic regulations. What personal factor is most likely to be affecting Myers' perception of SUV drivers?

his expectations

99

Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are most likely to be noticed in a group. Which of the following statements best describes the reason behind this?

We don't look at targets in isolation.

100

During team meetings Amber Downing always notices that Rhona Law tends to ask innumerable questions and suggest ideas at each discussion. However, Law stands out in the meetings only because she is the only one making suggestions. If both of them were part of team meetings where almost all members made suggestions and asked questions, Law would not have drawn as much attention from Downing. Which of the following factors has most likely influenced Downing's perception of Law?

context

101

Monica Walden feels that people who use plastic bags are insensitive toward the environment. She believes that people have a certain obligation toward their environment and should take it upon themselves to protect and preserve it. Which of the following factors has most likely influenced Walden's perception of plastic bag users?

expectation

102

Which of the following is a factor present in a target which may affect a person's perception?

novelty

103

Which of the following is a factor present in a situation which may affect a person's perception?

time

104

Which of the following is a factor present in a perceiver which may affect perception?

interest

105

Alicia Akers works as a marketing executive. She always talks in a high pitch and often draws a lot of attention wherever she is. Which of the following statements best explains the reason behind people noticing Akers?

Characteristics of the target affect people's perception.

106

BLANK explains the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we assign to a given behavior.

Attribution theory

107

Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual's behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination, however, depends largely on three factors. Which of the following is one of these three factors?

consistency

108

Which of the following is an example of internally caused behavior?

An employee was fired from work because he violated a company policy.

109

Which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior?

An employee is late to work because of a punctured tire.

110

According to the attribution theory, BLANK is one the three main factors which attempt to determine an individual's behavior.

distinctiveness

111

When individuals observe another person's behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Which of the following attempts to explain this phenomenon?

attribution theory

112

With reference to the attribution theory, which of the following terms indicates the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different situations?

distinctiveness

113

If a person responds to a particular situation in the same way over a long time period, then the attribution theory states that the behavior demonstrates BLANK

consistency

114

According to the attribution theory, if a behavior scores BLANK we tend to attribute it to external causes.

low on consistency

115

Janice Yoder works in an environmental campaigning organization and often needs to interact with a large team for project implementation activities. However, she always finds it difficult to work as a part of a team. She always seems to have major disagreements with team members which lead to antagonistic relations between them. Though she has moved from one team to another, her relations with colleagues always seem to be hostile and cold. How would the attribution theory describe this behavior?

high on consistency

116

According to the attribution theory, if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows BLANK

consensus

117

Janice is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would attribution theory describe this behavior?

It shows consistency.

118

According to the attribution theory, which of the following behaviors is most likely to be attributed to an external cause?

a behavior that scores high on consensus

119

Samantha is never late for work, but last Monday she arrived an hour late because of heavy traffic. According to the attribution theory, Samantha's behavior on that day scores BLANK

low on consistency

120

Megan Cardova, who works as a sales executive at Orbit Bank, has been failing to meet her sales targets for the last 10 months. Recently, she had a face-to-face discussion with her manager where she said that the unrealistic targets were the reason for her underperformance. The manager, however, noticed that all the other team members were achieving their targets and sometimes were even achieving more than the set numbers. Which of the following is Cardova's behavior most likely to be characterized as according to the attribution theory?

low consensus

121

According to the attribution theory, if a behavior scores BLANK we tend to attribute it to internal causes

low on distinctiveness

122

Which of the following terms best describes the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others?

fundamental attribution error

123

Naomi Fisher, a sales manager at Pure, a water purifier company, had a new member, Leah Marshall, join her team. Though during Leah's interview, Naomi felt she would be a productive sales executive, her performance has often been below the mark. Consistently in the past three months, Leah has been unable to reach her targets and is falling substantially behind on her annual targets. Naomi assumes that Leah is not determined and motivated enough to do what it takes. Which of the following, if true, weakens Naomi's assumption?

Leah has been assigned a sales territory where consumers are from low income groups.

124

Johanna Murray, a climate campaigner at The National Footprint Foundation, is known in her organization to be a campaigner of caliber and high performance. She recently worked on a campaign against global warming during which she worked extremely hard to achieve project milestones. However, the campaign failed as it could not achieve the desired objective. Due to this, her manager, Brenda Owens, gave her a poor performance appraisal. In the appraisal, Brenda said that Johanna was not motivated and failed to reach out to 25,000 people through Internet media to spread awareness about climate change. Which of the following, if true, weakens Brenda's statement?

Brenda was unable to make time for Johanna to brief her on the tasks involved in carrying out the campaign's media strategy.

125

Johanna Springer, who works as a sales executive at Pascal's Bank, is upset at the way her manager, Emma Womack, always calls her in for one-on-one meetings to discuss her underperformance. Though Springer makes a higher number of sales calls and works longer hours than last year, her sales figures are still low. She knows that the main reason behind her underperformance is the recent economic meltdown in the country. However, her manager feels that Springer's underperformance is the result of her laid-back attitude and has nothing to do with external factors. In this situation, Womack's behavior is characterized by a(n) ________.

fundamental attribution error

126

BLANK bias indicates the tendency of an individual to attribute his or her own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

Self-serving

127

Jane Allen, a campaign manager at a non-profit organization, often takes full credit for project successes even when her team members' contributions play a big role in achieving milestones. However, when projects receive setbacks, she blames her team members and sometimes states that the situation was beyond her control. Allen's behavior is an example of a(n) ________ bias.

self-serving

128

Laura Simpson, a campaign manager at a child rights organization in Jakarta, planned a marathon for celebrities to raise money for underprivileged children. Though all arrangements for the event had been made, a few days before the event she realized that on the same day there was a political rally happening in the city which would block access to the route on which the marathon was supposed to be undertaken. In such a situation, what is Simpson, who suffers from a self-serving bias, most likely to say?

My colleagues did not inform me about the rally.

129

Individuals engage in BLANK because it is impossible for them to assimilate everything they see and can take in only certain stimuli.

selective perception

130

You are more likely to notice a car like your own due to BLANK

selective perception

131

Harriet Kirby, a fund raising manager at a women's rights organization, experienced a bad incident last year with the public relations manager of a banking company who had committed to sponsor a charity event. The bank backed out at the last minute. This year, when a renowned international bank executive showed interest in sponsoring the organization's upcoming annual event, Kirby rejected their participation. She felt that banks have a casual approach toward charity events and it is risky to involve them in the event. Which of the following best characterizes Kirby's decision?

selective perception

132

BLANK refers to the tendency of people to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.

Halo effect

133

Amanda Winter worked as a public engagement coordinator at Safe Food Alliance until three months ago when her manager, Laura Morris, promoted her to the position of a sustainable food campaigner. However, soon after this, Laura noticed that Amanda was facing major difficulties in achieving campaign milestones and the project was falling behind schedule due to her lack of performance. Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the argument that Laura was influenced by the halo effect in her decision to promote Amanda?

Laura sat in on only one of Amanda's presentations prior to giving her the promotion.

134

Which of the following describes the halo effect?

drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

135

William Davies, a guest relations executive at a five star deluxe hotel, regularly interacts with bureaucrats, politicians, celebrities, and other prosperous individuals. He feels that all rich people are kind, hardworking, and friendly. Which of the following best characterizes Davies' perception?

halo effect

136

BLANK refers to the evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.

Stereotyping

137

Which of the following statements is true regarding a contrast effect?

It involves evaluation of a person's features based on comparison with another person

138

Jessica recently joined a new company and was first introduced to Michelle, her cubicle neighbor. Michelle came across as amiable and cheerful. During lunch she met another colleague, Carrie, who did not come across as friendly as Michelle. In this situation, Jessica's interpretation of Carrie's personality is most likely to be affected by ________.

contrast effect

139

Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which the person belongs is called ________.

stereotyping

140

Which of the following is a shortcut used in judging others by making generalizations

stereotyping

141

Rose Buffay needs to give a presentation to the board of directors of her organization next week. She knows that her presentation will play an important role in her performance appraisal in the next quarter. However, she knows that two of her colleagues, John Roy and Keith Mathews, will also be giving a presentation on the same issue. She is nervous because she believes that men have a better flair for giving presentations. Buffay's perception of Roy and Mathews is most likely characterized by ________.

stereotyping

142

A manager believes that he should not hire older workers because they can't learn new skills. This belief is an example of BLANK

stereotyping

143

Which of the following terms refers to a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives another person and the resulting expectations cause the other person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception?

self-fulfilling prophecy

144

Sarah Covington, a sales manager at Synergy Corporation Bank, often keeps low expectations of her team. She feels that they are underqualified for their job and do not have substantial experience to sell a large number of accounts. Covington's team does not feel motivated enough and invariably underperforms and misses targets on a regular basis. Which of the following concepts best explains Covington's team's poor performance?

self-fulfilling prophecy

145

Which of the following terms refers to choices made from among two or more alternatives

decision

146

A(n) BLANK refers to a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state.

problem

147

Which of the following is a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome?

rational decision-making model

148

Which of the following statements is true regarding the rational decision-making model?

It assumes that an individual is able to identify all relevant options in an unbiased manner.

149

What is the first step in the rational decision-making model?

defining the problem

150

Anne Warner, a climate campaigner at an environmental organization, is in charge of implementing a campaign activity where she needs to increase the use of renewable energy in the villages of Vietnam. For her project, she uses the rational decision-making model to implement activities. She has just completed identifying an appropriate criteria for decision making and has allocated weights to the criteria. Which of the following is Warner most likely to undertake next according to the model?

develop options of wind, solar, and hydro energy

151

With reference to decision making, which of the following does satisficing involve?

seeking solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient

152

Emily Boyce, a project manager at an insurance firm, regularly satisfices while making decisions. She often comes across complicated problems which would take a long time to resolve. Due to the pressing deadlines, she often meets project goals by satisficing a large number of her decisions. Which of the following is Boyce most likely to do?

search for solutions that are reasonable

153

A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity is known as BLANK

bounded rationality

154

BLANK is an unconscious processreated from distilled experience

Intuitive decision making

155

Which of the following is true about intuitive decision making?

It involves making decisions based on distilled experience.

156

Phyllis Stintson needs to decide whether to start a campaign against deforestation in Indonesia. Though her research team has provided substantial information on the high feasibility of the project, Stintson does not go ahead with the project. If Stintson made her decision by drawing unconscious references from several different experiences in the past, her decision is most likely influenced by which of the following?

intuition

157

The ________ bias is a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.

anchoring

158

Jeanne Edwards works as a campaign manager at Rainforest Alliance Trust, a forest protection organization in Indonesia. She is currently working on the Palm Oil Campaign, which aims to establish stringent laws against companies which aggravate deforestation by extracting palm oil for commercial use. Her role is to establish allies with other forest protection organizations and companies which use eco-friendly products that set good examples for other companies to follow. Jeanne allied with Griffin and Powell, a large multinational company, which, unknown to Jeanne, also has strong ties with local logging groups in Jakarta. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen the argument that Jeanne had an availability bias while establishing an ally with the company?

Griffin and Powell ensures that all their CSR initiatives on forests are regularly and substantially publicized.

159

Johanna Murray, a climate campaigner at The National Footprint Foundation, is known in her organization to be a campaigner of caliber and high performance. She has strong networks with the Ministry of Environment and allies with several environmental organizations in the country. Over the years, she has gained substantial knowledge on the issue of climate change. However, recently when she prepared a consolidated report on a conference she attended on climate change, it reflected major loopholes and limited information from the conference. Which of the following, if true, substantiates that Johanna had an anchoring bias?

Johanna was moved by the arguments put forth by the first speaker.

160

The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments is known as a(n) BLANK bias.

confirmation

161

________ bias refers to the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easily accessible.

Availability

162

Which of the following types of biases is most likely to play a significant role during a negotiation?

anchoring bias

163

A manager doing performance appraisals gives more weight to recent employee behaviors than to behaviors of 6 or 9 months earlier. This shows that the manager's perception is affected by a(n) ________ bias.

) availability

164

________ refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence it's wrong.

Escalation of commitment

165

The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as a(n) ________ bias.

hindsight

166

According to the concept of ________, decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes, ideally to provide the greatest good for the greatest number.

utilitarianism

167

Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders are known as ________.

whistle-blowers

168

Which of the following is a component of the three-component model of creativity?

expertise

169

An individual's perception of reality can be substantially different from objective reality.

T

170

People's behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.

T

171

The perception of a target is unaffected by the perceiver's personality or past experiences.

F

172

According to the attribution theory, if a behavior scores high on consensus and distinctiveness, we tend to consider it as an internally caused behavior.

F

173

The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors is known as the confirmation bias.

F

174

The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others is known as the randomness error

F

175

The tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic is known as the contrast effect.

F

176

A candidate is likely to receive a more favorable evaluation if preceded by mediocre applicants and a less favorable evaluation if preceded by strong applicants. This is an example of the halo effect.

F

177

Stereotyping helps individuals make quick decision through generalizations.

T

178

In an interview, information elicited early from an interviewee carries greater weight than information elicited later.

T

179

The rational decision-making model takes into consideration the fact that all information pertaining to a problem might not be available to the decision maker.

F

180

Rational decision making is an unconscious process created from distilled experience

F

181

Anchoring bias occurs because our mind appears to give a disproportionate amount of emphasis to the first information it receives.

T

182

A person's tendency to believe he or she can predict the outcome of random events is known as the self-serving bias.

F

183

Escalation of commitment refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence it's wrong.

T

184

The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as the confirmation bias.

F

185

The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as the confirmation bias.

T

186

A focus on utilitarianism creates an environment that hinders productivity and efficiency

F