Final Exam

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1

Five hemoglobin molecules can carry a total of _____ oxygen molecules.

20

2

Which of these is a granulocyte?

an eosinophil

3

Which blood type is considered the universal recipient?

O-

4

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the

chief cells of the stomach.

5

Surgical cutting of the gingivae would occur around which structure of the body?

the teeth

6

What is the functional contractile unit of a skeletal muscle called?

a sarcomere

7

Respiratory acidosis can occur when

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction.

8

Histamines are secreted by

basophils.

9

The first artery to branch from the aortic arch is the

brachiocephalic trunk.

10

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

changes in arterial pressure

11

Which statement is FALSE concerning adaptations to exercise?

Highly active muscle fibers contain fewer myofibrils.

12

The __________ unites with the common bile duct to form the ampulla of Vater.

main pancreatic duct

13

*A client’s kidneys are retaining large amounts of sodium. The nurse anticipates that the kidneys also are retaining large amounts of

chloride and bicarbonate.

14

Which of the following is NOT true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?

Terminal bronchioles give rise to alveolar ducts which branch into respiratory bronchioles that end in alveolar sacs

15

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The lungs receive blood from the pulmonary circuit only.

16

The blood protein albumin

is the most abundant blood protein that regulates osmotic pressure.

17

Select the CORRECT statement about the nephrons.

Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the glomerulus of the nephron.

18

Name the muscle that prevents “winging” of the scapulae.

serratus anterior

19

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

enteroendocrine cells

20

Which of the following is a member of the hamstrings?

Semitendinosus

21

In general, the sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called

mesenteries.

22

Myoglobin

stores oxygen in muscle cells.

23

*A client is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of mitral stenosis. The nurse caring for the client understands that the narrowing of this valve impedes circulation of blood from the

left atrium to left ventricle.

24

Platelets

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break.

25

The terminal portion of the large intestine is known as the

anal canal.

26

Bell's palsy is a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) that results in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side. Which muscle will NOT be affected as a result of this condition?

genioglossus

27

*A client in renal failure is hyponatremic (low in sodium). The nurse attributes this problem to the client’s insufficient production of

aldosterone.

28

Respiratory control centers are located in the

medulla oblongata and pons.

29

Paneth cells

secrete antimicrobial enzymes that kill bacteria.

30

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is

glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

31

Peristaltic waves are

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.

32

Which of these is NOT a normal plasma protein?

thromboplastin

33

*A clinic nurse is performing a cardiovascular assessment on a client. In preparing to assess the client’s apical pulse, the nurse places the stethoscope over the heart’s apex in which the of the following locations?

at the midclavicular line at the fifth left intercostal space

34

During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to

lactic acid.

35

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the

papillary muscles.

36

A prominent lateral muscle of the neck that can cause lateral rotation and flexion of the head is the

sternocleidomastoid muscle.

37

The function of goblet cells is to

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for digestion.

38

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their

inefficient kidneys.

39

A falling blood pH and a rising carbon dioxide level to pneumonia or emphysema indicates

respiratory acidosis.

40

Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?

hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

41

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

amylase

42

The function of hepatic portal circulation is to

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage.

43

The latissimus dorsi muscle is classified as a

convergent muscle.

44

Which of the following chemicals does NOT help regulate blood pressure?

nitric acid

45

What is the role of tropomyosin in skeletal muscle?

Tropomyosin serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules.

46

The renal corpuscle is made up of

Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus.

47

Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to play the trumpet as loud as you could?

The internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract.

48

Which hormones or paracrine will inhibit gastric secretions?

secretin

49

When carbon dioxide loading occurs, the hemoglobin molecule is more appropriately referred to as

carbaminohemoglobin.

50

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by

secondary active transport.

51

The pitch of a person's voice depends on all of the following EXCEPT

the orientation of the tongue.

52

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The lungs occupy the space between the parietal and visceral pleurae.

53

You have just eaten a cracker. Which of the following glands would be active in initiating the digestion of this food?

the parotid glands

54

Paralysis of which muscle would make an individual unable to unlock the knee joint?

popliteus

55

Tidal volume is air

exchanged during normal breathing.

56

Epicardium and endocardium contain do not contain?

The adipose tissue.

57

__________ are phagocytic leukocytes that develop into macrophages outside of the blood stream.

Monocytes

58

Which muscle(s) is (are) contracted to inhale forcibly?

external intercostals and diaphragm

59

In an isotonic contraction, the muscle

changes in length and moves the "load".

60

Which of the choices below is NOT a function of the urinary system?

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

61

Chyme is created in the

stomach.

62

Which muscle would NOT be utilized to kick a soccer ball?

splenius

63

The term ductus venosus refers to

a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver.

64

Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?

Saliva contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins.

65

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

cholecystokinin

66

All of the following are muscles of the rotator cuff EXCEPT the

teres major.

67

The lumbrical muscles lie between

the metacarpal bones.

68

Which of the events below does NOT occur when the semilunar valves are open?

ventricles are in diastole

69

*A client who has been diagnosed with pleurisy tells the nurse that it is painful to inhale. The nurse responds that this is an expected finding because

the inflamed pleura cannot glide against each other as would normally occur.

70

Striations of a skeletal muscle cell are produced by

the arrangement of myofilaments.

71

Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

production of aldosterone

72

Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the

medial compartment of the thigh.

73

The bifurcation of the trachea lies posterior to the

ascending aorta.

74

The largest air passages that engage in gas exchange with the blood are the

respiratory bronchioles.

75

Which of the following is NOT a structure or impression of the right lung?

the lingula

76

The azygos vein

empties into the superior vena cava.

77

*A client has experienced a myocardial infarction. The nurse caring for the client understands that the client’s chest pain is due to tissue hypoxia in which of the following layers of the heart?

myocardium

78

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?

Myofilaments slide during isotonic contractions.

79

Which of the following statements about the molecular structure of myofilaments is TRUE?

The head of the myosin molecule binds to an active site on G actin.

80

*A nurse is caring for a client who is retaining carbon dioxide (CO2) as a result of respiratory disease. The nurse anticipates that as the client’s CO2 level rises, the client’s pH level should

fall.

81

Which of the following statements is an INCORRECT statement?

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

82

Which three muscles elevate the mandible?

masseter, temporalis, and medial pterygoid

83

To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the

2nd intercostal space right of the sternum.

84

The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II pneumocytes. The function of type II is to

secrete surfactant.

85

*A client who is experiencing respiratory difficulty asks the nurse, “Why is it so much easier to breath out than in?” In providing a response, the nurse explains that breathing is easier on exhalation because

the respiratory muscles relax.

86

Which of the following arteries will supply the tissues of the lungs?

bronchial arteries

87

Which of the below structures anchors the tooth in the bony alveolus of the jaw?

periodontal ligament

88

______ gives erythrocytes flexibility to change shape as necessary.

Spectrin

89

The kidney hormone __________ stimulates RBC production.

erythropoietin

90

Cardiac muscle has all of the following EXCEPT

terminal cisternae.

91

Which of the following describes the infrahyoid muscles?

They consist of the sternohyoid, thyrohyoid, and omohyoid muscles.

92

*A nurse instructor asks a nursing student to describe the structure and function of the coronary arteries. Which of the following responses by the student indicates a need to further research anatomy and physiology related to the heart?

“The left coronary artery branches into the circumflex and posterior interventricular artery.”

93

An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of two net ATPs per glucose plus two pyruvic acid molecules is

glycolysis.

94

The larynx contains

the thyrohyoid membrane.

95

The most abundant formed elements seen in most stained blood films are

erythrocytes.

96

*A chest x-ray report states that the client has an apical pneumothorax of the left lung. The nurse caring for this client monitors the status of breath sounds in that area by placing the stethoscope

just under the left clavicle.

97

The nose serves all the following functions

Cleansing and humidifying the air, as a passageway for air movement, and
warming the air.

98

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica media

99

What part of the sarcolemma contains acetylcholine receptors?

motor end plate

100

All of the following are branches of the external carotid EXCEPT the

vertebral artery.

101

*A nurse is providing a simple overview of the anatomy of the liver and gallbladder for a client hospitalized with biliary obstruction. The nurse explains that normally the liver stores bile in the gallbladder, which is connected to the liver’s biliary system by the

cystic duct.

102

Select the CORRECT statement regarding blood cell formation.

Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.

103

What is the functional role of the T tubules?

to conduct contractile impulses to the deepest regions of the muscle cell and to every sarcomere.

104

Which of the following is NOT directly associated with the renal corpuscle?

an interlobar artery

105

When a muscle fiber contracts

the Z-lines move closer together.

106

Microcirculation includes all of the following structures EXCEPT

distributing arteries.

107

A(n) _____ is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement.

agonist

108

Which of the following muscles is involved in frowning?

the depressor anguli oris

109

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle

has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium.

110

The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

sodium ions

111

The __________ supply the brain with blood.

internal carotid arteries

112

Which pair of muscles are important in male reproduction?

bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus

113

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

The vestibular folds help to close the glottis during swallowing.

114

*A nurse is listening to a cardiologist explain the results of a cardiac catheterization to a client and family. The physician tells the client that a blockage is present in the large blood vessel that supplies the anterior wall of the left ventricle. The nurse interprets that the physician is referring to which of the following arteries?

left anterior descending coronary artery

115

Complete the statement.
Platelets contain ___________________

...

116

Which of the following is NOT a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

type I pneumocytes

117

Allergies stimulate an increased _____ count.

eosinophil

118

Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

the lungs and kidneys

119

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares and intestinal villi

120

The pectoralis major muscle attaches to all of the following areas EXCEPT

the xiphoid process.

121

Which vitamin is important in the formation of blood clotting proteins?

vitamin K

122

The hepatic portal vein is formed by the joining of the gastric veins, splenic vein, and the

superior mesenteric vein.

123

Which of the following muscles is least likely to contract while performing a back-bend?

latissimus dorsi muscle.

124

Which of the following muscles inverts the foot?

tibialis posterior

125

The septal papillary muscle is found in the

right ventricle.

126

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contractions is to

regulate intracellular calcium concentration.

127

The ________ contains hexagonal lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

Liver

128

*A client has been diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The nurse interprets that the client has dysfunction of which of the following parts of the digestive system?

lower esophageal sphincter

129

Which statement is NOT true of the position of the kidneys in the body?

They are superior and posterior to the liver and spleen.

130

The fossa ovalis

is a shallow depression in the interatrial septum.

131

Blood in the posterior interventricular artery flows into myocardial blood capillaries and then drains into the

middle cardiac vein.

132

*A hospitalized client has been diagnosed with heart failure as a complication of hypertension. In explaining the disease process to the client, the nurse identifies which of the following chambers of the heart as primarily responsible for the client’s symptoms?

left ventricle

133

Which of the following muscles is a medial rotator of the thigh?

pectineus

134

*A client is experiencing delayed gastric emptying. The nurse determines that dysfunction of the following structures is responsible for the client’s symptoms?

pyloric sphincter

135

Which of the following is an ESSENTIAL role played by bacteria of the large intestine?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

136

A motor neuron and the muscle cells that it stimulates is referred to as a

motor unit.

137

Which nerve runs along the lateral mediastinum between the pericardium of the heart and the lungs.

phrenic nerve

138

The lamina propria

is a component of the mucosa.

139

Select the CORRECT statement about the pharynx.

The auditory tubes drain into the nasopharynx.

140

Which of the following are composed of actin?

thin filaments

141

*A nurse is caring for a hospitalized client diagnosed with pancreatitis. The nurse anticipates that the enzyme _____ will remain normal in the client.

lactase

142

Which of the following is characteristic of ALL leukocytes?

They are nucleated.

143

Fenestrated capillaries

are more permeable than continuous capillaries.

144

The T wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates

ventricular repolarization.

145

All of the following are functions of muscles EXCEPT

regulating protein decomposition.

146

Which muscle would be an antagonist to the extensor digiti minimi muscle?

the flexor digitorum superficialis

147

Which cells of the kidneys are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?

macula densa cells

148

The term hypotonic hydration refers to

a condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water.

149

What is the role of calcium ions in muscle contraction?

Ca2+ ions bind to regulatory sites on troponin to remove contraction inhibition.