Human Development Chapter 1 Study guide Flashcards

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Define development

the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.


Why should we study development?

  1. to become better parents and teachers
  2. help to interpret our own life experiences
  3. gain insight into what we may experience as we age


What do developmentalists study?

all kinds of people (young, rich, poor, old, etc) to try to identifiy universalities (beyond birth and death) and differences (beyond unique genetics)


Describe development according to lifespan persepctive?

  1. lifelong
  2. multidementional
  3. multidirectional
  4. multidisciplinary
  5. multicontextual
  6. plastic
  7. involves growth, maintenance, and regulation
  8. constructed through biological, sociocultural and individual factors working together


Briefly describe Lifelong in the life-span perspective?

development is lifelong no age period dominates development studies


Briefly describe mutidimensional in the life-span perspective?

no matter what the age, your mind, body, emotions, and relationships are changing and affecting each other. Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.


Define Biological processes

change in a person's physical nature


Define Cognitive processes

changes in a person's thought, intelligence, and language


Define Socioemotional processes

changes in a person's relationships with other people, emotions, personality


Briefly describe Multidirectional in life span perspective

Change occurs in every direction, not always a straight line.

Throughout life we experience gains and losses


Briefly describe Multidisciplinary in life span perspective

The study of lifespan overlaps many fields, including biology, psychology, religion, anthropology, etc


Briefly describe Multicontextual in life span perspective

Human lives are embedded in many contexts including

historical conditions (people born at the same time experiencing the same historical events), economic constraints, family patterns, when you were born


what are the 3 Influences of Context

  1. normative age graded influence
  2. normative history graded influence
  3. nonnormative or highly individualized life events


define normative age graded influence

influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group


Define normative history graded influences

influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of a particular historical circumstances


define nonnormative or highly individualized life events

unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life


briefly describe plastic in the life span perspective

the capacity for change. Every individual and every trait within each individual can be altered at any point in the life span. However, possible, we posses less capacity for change as we grow older.


briefly describe the involvement of growth,maintenance, and regulation in the life span perspective

Development is a co-construction of biological, cultural, and individual factors working together. For example, the brain shapes culture, but it is also shaped by culture and the experiences that individuals have or pursue


briefly describe construction through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together in the life span persepctive

these are co constructors of development. As individuals, we can actively choose things from the environment that optimize our lives


what are some contemporary concerns in the study of human development

  1. health and well being
  2. parenting and education
  3. sociocultural contexts and diversity


define culture

encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation


define ethnic group

people whose ancestors were born in the same region and often share a language, culture and religion


define race

a group of people regarded as genetically distinct from others based on physical appearance


what are the four ages of development>

  1. first age - chilhood and adolesence
  2. second age - prime adulthood, 20-59
  3. third age - approx 60-79
  4. fourth age - approx 80 and older


Nature vs Nurture debate

Nature believes behaviors are innate, hard wired, genetically determined

Nurture believes behaviors are learned, flexible, and not genetically determined


Stability Change debate

about whether we become older renditions of our early experience or whether we develop into someone different form who we were at an earlier point in development


Continuity - Discontinuity issue

debate about the extent to which development evolves

gradual cumulative changes or distinct stages


Briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory

Development reflects the influence of several environmental systems

  1. microsystem - persons immediate surroundings
  2. mesosystem - relations between microsystems
  3. exosystems - settings or events that may indirectly influence a person
  4. macrosystems - larger social settings such as cultural values, economic, politics
  5. chronosystems - consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances