Human Development Chapter 1 Study guide

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1

Define development

the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span.

2

Why should we study development?

  1. to become better parents and teachers
  2. help to interpret our own life experiences
  3. gain insight into what we may experience as we age
3

What do developmentalists study?

all kinds of people (young, rich, poor, old, etc) to try to identifiy universalities (beyond birth and death) and differences (beyond unique genetics)

4

Describe development according to lifespan persepctive?

  1. lifelong
  2. multidementional
  3. multidirectional
  4. multidisciplinary
  5. multicontextual
  6. plastic
  7. involves growth, maintenance, and regulation
  8. constructed through biological, sociocultural and individual factors working together
5

Briefly describe Lifelong in the life-span perspective?

development is lifelong no age period dominates development studies

6

Briefly describe mutidimensional in the life-span perspective?

no matter what the age, your mind, body, emotions, and relationships are changing and affecting each other. Development has biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.

7

Define Biological processes

change in a person's physical nature

8

Define Cognitive processes

changes in a person's thought, intelligence, and language

9

Define Socioemotional processes

changes in a person's relationships with other people, emotions, personality

10

Briefly describe Multidirectional in life span perspective

Change occurs in every direction, not always a straight line.

Throughout life we experience gains and losses

11

Briefly describe Multidisciplinary in life span perspective

The study of lifespan overlaps many fields, including biology, psychology, religion, anthropology, etc

12

Briefly describe Multicontextual in life span perspective

Human lives are embedded in many contexts including

historical conditions (people born at the same time experiencing the same historical events), economic constraints, family patterns, when you were born

13

what are the 3 Influences of Context

  1. normative age graded influence
  2. normative history graded influence
  3. nonnormative or highly individualized life events
14

define normative age graded influence

influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

15

Define normative history graded influences

influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of a particular historical circumstances

16

define nonnormative or highly individualized life events

unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual's life

17

briefly describe plastic in the life span perspective

the capacity for change. Every individual and every trait within each individual can be altered at any point in the life span. However, possible, we posses less capacity for change as we grow older.

18

briefly describe the involvement of growth,maintenance, and regulation in the life span perspective

Development is a co-construction of biological, cultural, and individual factors working together. For example, the brain shapes culture, but it is also shaped by culture and the experiences that individuals have or pursue

19

briefly describe construction through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together in the life span persepctive

these are co constructors of development. As individuals, we can actively choose things from the environment that optimize our lives

20

what are some contemporary concerns in the study of human development

  1. health and well being
  2. parenting and education
  3. sociocultural contexts and diversity
21

define culture

encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation

22

define ethnic group

people whose ancestors were born in the same region and often share a language, culture and religion

23

define race

a group of people regarded as genetically distinct from others based on physical appearance

24

what are the four ages of development>

  1. first age - chilhood and adolesence
  2. second age - prime adulthood, 20-59
  3. third age - approx 60-79
  4. fourth age - approx 80 and older
25

Nature vs Nurture debate

Nature believes behaviors are innate, hard wired, genetically determined

Nurture believes behaviors are learned, flexible, and not genetically determined

26

Stability Change debate

about whether we become older renditions of our early experience or whether we develop into someone different form who we were at an earlier point in development

27

Continuity - Discontinuity issue

debate about the extent to which development evolves

gradual cumulative changes or distinct stages

28

Briefly describe Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory

Development reflects the influence of several environmental systems

  1. microsystem - persons immediate surroundings
  2. mesosystem - relations between microsystems
  3. exosystems - settings or events that may indirectly influence a person
  4. macrosystems - larger social settings such as cultural values, economic, politics
  5. chronosystems - consists of the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances