Human Anatomy & Physiology: A&P Chapter 1 Review Flashcards
The study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
The study of the function of the body structures.
Describe the nature of different topics in anatomy.
Gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and developmental anatomy
Describe the main focus of physiology.
Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level.
Describe the principle of complementarity of structure and function. How does it unite the disciplines of anatomy and physiology?
Function always reflects structure.
The function depends on its structure.
Levels of organization: list from simplest to most complex.
Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
Describe the importance of each of the necessary life functions. Briefly describe each function.
Maintaining boundaries- Ex. skin keeps insides in and outside out
Movement- the ability to move on it's own
Responsiveness- Responding to external environment
Digestion- Breaking food down to smaller components
Metabolism- chemical reactions that occur in the human body
Excretion- process of removing wastes
Reproduction- sexual or cellular or asexual
Growth- change in the size of the stucture
Maintenance of a constant, stable internal environment.
Negative feedback system
The output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus.
Example: Regulation of body temperature
Positive feedback system
Does not maintain homeostasis.
The output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus.
Example: Regulation of blood clotting
Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body
Why is anatomical position important?
It gives us all the same frame of reference
Closer to the top of the head
Further away from the head
Towards the front
Towards the back
Closer to the midline
Further away from the midline
Closer to the origin
Further away from the origin
Closer to the surface of the body
Further away from the surface
Cuts body into anterior and postier positions
Divides body into left and right (does not have to be equal)
Divides body into superior and inferior horizontal cut.
At a diagonal.
2 sections: cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
2 subdivisions: Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
In your cranium (holds your brain)
Contains heart and lungs
Contains abdominal and pelvic
Name the membranes in the ventral cavity.
Parietal serosa and visceral serosa
Lines internal body walls
Example: lines the abdominal walls, thoracic walls...
Covers the internal organs (each organ has its own serous membrane)
Separates the serosa (found in between the membranes)