Minerals Practice Exam Flashcards


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1

Which of the following is not a criterion for defining as a mineral?

Hard

2

Which of the following is a mineral as defined by a geologist?

Salt

3

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains.

4

Which of the following is not true for minerals?

They can be a liquid, solid, or gas.

5

Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?

Selection

6

Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of______.

Protons in the nucleus

7

Which of the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus?

Protons

8

An atom's mass number is 13 and the atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

7

9

Heavy elements like Pb (lead) and U (Uranium) were generated______.

During collapse of a star and subsequent nuclear systems in a supernova

10

When Calcium (Ca) bonds with oxygen, it gives up two electrons. What is the charge of the Ca ion in this compound?

+2

11

Which electrons are responsible for most chemical bonding?

Outer electron shell because these electrons can be readily exchanged with adjacent atoms.

12

Element 20, Ca, has what chemical property?

It behaves as a metal ion, giving up two electrons to form a +2 ion.

13

Element 17 (CI) and 9 (F)

Are chemically similar because they lie directly below each other on the periodic table

14

The columns of the periodic table divide atoms by their_________.

Number of valence electrons

15

Atoms that share electrons have a(n)___________bond.

Covalent

16

The bond between sodium (Na) and Chlorine (CI) to form halite (salt) is a(n)_________bond.

Ionic

17

Atoms that have an electrical charge due to a gain or loss of electrons are called_______.

Ions

18

What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

Diamond

19

Which mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas?

Calcite

20

the resistance of a mineral to abrasion is known as______.

Hardness

21

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as________.

Cleavage

22

The most unreliable (variable) diagnostic property of minerals such as quartz is______.

Color

23

Wood floats in water, 1 gram is defined as that mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water, a cubic centimeter of quartz weighs ~2.65 g and a cubic centimeter of galena weighs about 7.5 g. The density of these materials from highest to lowest is____________.

Galena,quartz, water, wood

24

what does the tendency of micas to produce thin cleavage flakes suggest about its crystal structure?

The atoms are arranged in orderly arrangements that form strongly bonded sheets separated by weak bonds between the sheets.

25

Angles are important when looking at physical properties of minerals?

Cleavages

26

Which of the following physical properties is not generally used to identify most minerals?

Smell

27

Which of the following describes the light reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineral?

Luster

28

When mineral fractures along a cleavage plane, what does this suggest about the crystal structure of the mineral?

The crystal structure contains planes along which chemical bonding is much weaker than other directions.

29

why do minerals calcite and dolomite bubble with the mineral or its powder are placed in hydrochloric acid?

The acid reacts with the mineral to release CO2 gas that is bound into crystal as carbonate ion.

30

Quartz has a characteristic conchoidal fracture, yet rock shops often sell quartz as elongate six sided objects with a pointed termination.What causes this shape?

The planar faces that form the object are crystal faces that grow when the crystals grew into a void.

31

Although it is relatively common, limestone is an economically important rock type because its major constituent mineral,__________,is used in the production of__________.

Calcite, cement

32

Which two elements combine to make most of the common rock forming minerals in the crust?

Silicon and oxygen

33

The most common group of rock forming minerals is___________.

The silicates

34

The basic building block of a silicate is composed of_________.

4 oxygens and 1 silicon

35

Silicates most commonly form_________.

From cooling molten rock

36

Clay is an example of____.

A silicate that forms from weathering of other silicates

37

Carbonates always include__________.

Sulfate

38

Which of the following minerals is a silicate?

Feldspar

39

What theory dramatically improved geologist's ability to predict where certain one deposits were formed?

Plate tectonics

40

Chose the option which does not fit the pattern

Calcite feldspar quartz olivine

41

Which of the following is not a chemical compound?

Graphite (C)

42

Carbonates always include__________.

CO3-2