lifespan chapter 2
Evolution pervasively influences how we make decisions.
Prepared childbirth can assist mothers during labor.
Survivors are better adapted to their world than non-survivors.
Genes are collaborative and development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment.
Shared environment accounts for little of the variation in children's personalities.
There are three ways in which heredity and environment are correlated.
The benefits conferred by evolutionary selection decrease with age.
Argued for a bidirectional link between biology and environment.
Argued that genes do not act independently.
Massage therapy can improve at-risk infant outcomes.
The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best able to survive and reproduce is called:
According to Paul Baltes, the benefits conferred by evolutionary selection:
decrease with age.
Albert Bandura supports a bidirectional view of evolutionism in which:
environmental and biological conditions influence each other.
The units of hereditary information that direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins are called:
All cells in the human body, except the sperm and egg, have:
23 paired chromosomes.
The typical female chromosome pattern is:
A phenotype consists of:
physical and psychological characteristics.
The complete set of instructions for creating proteins that initiate the making of a human organism is referred to as the:
Which genetic disorder is caused by an extra chromosome?
Which of these syndromes is NOT sex-linked?
Which of the following is a genetic disorder that impairs the body's red blood cells?
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg are called _____ twins.
Adoption studies are designed to test the different effects of:
environment and heredity.
Mary begs her parents to allow her to take piano lessons. After her first several lessons, it quickly becomes apparent that Mary has a natural talent for music. This example best illustrates a(n) _____ correlation.
Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child will also learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?
Passive genotype-environment interaction
A fertilized ovum is called a(n):
The period of prenatal development that occurs in the first two weeks after conception is called the _____ period.
The _____ of the embryo develops into the digestive and respiratory systems.
On average, the fetal period of prenatal development lasts for _____ months.
Amniocentesis is a prenatal medical procedure that involves:
drawing a sample of the fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb.
Which of the following is a prenatal medical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are directed into a pregnant woman's abdomen?
Organs and tissues in an unborn baby are most vulnerable to environmental changes during:
A teratogen is a(n):
environmental factor that produces birth defects.
Exposure to teratogens during the fetal period is likely to cause:
problems in the way organs function.
Which of the following is an example of a psychoactive drug?
A common characteristic of babies born to women who smoke during their pregnancies is:
low birth weight.
Women who plan to have children should have a blood test before they become pregnant to determine if they are immune to which infectious disease?
A woman experiences an at-risk pregnancy when she has a:
negative Rh factor and her partner has a positive Rh factor.
A lack of folic acid in a pregnant woman's diet can result in offspring with:
Which of the following statements is most accurate in regards to parental factors that influence pregnancy?
A baby with Down syndrome is rarely born to a mother under the age of 30.
How can maternal stress affect a fetus or a child?
Increased likelihood of a language delay
How many stages are there in the birthing process?
What physiological change occurs within the fetus during the birthing process to ensure that he or she can withstand the stress of birth?
Secretion of large quantities of hormones
Which of the following is a complication of delivery?
A doula is a:
caregiver who helps a woman throughout childbirth.
Which of the following are/is a synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions during the birthing process?
are safer than breech deliveries.
Infants that are born three weeks or more before the pregnancy and reach full-term are referred to as _____ infants.
Janet, a newborn, receives a score of 3 on the Apgar Scale. Janet's score indicates that she:
might not survive.
To be labeled small for date, an infant must weigh less than _____ percent of all babies of the same gestational age.
A mother who is HIV-positive should avoid breast-feeding her infant.
A newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally.
Children born to women over the age of 30 are at an increased risk for Down syndrome.
Chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of a cell.
Drinking one or two servings of beer or wine a few days a week during pregnancy can have negative effects on the fetus.
Humans have approximately 20,500 genes.
In the United States, approximately 35 percent of babies are born at home.
In the United States, there has been a decrease in low-birth-weight infants in the last two decades.
Natural childbirth attempts to reduce a mother's pain through education, breathing methods, and relaxation techniques.
Sickle-cell anemia occurs most often in Asian Americans.
The epigenetic view emphasizes how heredity directs the kind of environmental experiences individuals have during their lifetime.
The last stage of birth is the longest stage.
The placenta is a sac that contains a clear fluid in which the embryo floats.
The trophoblast develops into the systems that provide nutrition and support for the embryo.
The type and severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen are linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the fetus.
active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations
Correlations that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating.
A study in which investigators seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed their heredity. Another form of the adoption study compares adoptive and biological siblings.
A widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth; it evaluates an infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.
The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.
The formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth.
Threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
A complex molecule that has a double helix shape and contains genetic information.
A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth.
A chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
The period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.
Perspective that emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment.
evocative genotype-environment correlations
Correlations that exist when the child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments.
A branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior.
A stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote.
fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
A cluster of abnormalities that may appear in the off spring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy.
The prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on average.
fragile X syndrome
A chromosomal disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks.
gene 3 environment (g 3 e) interaction
The interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment.
Units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and assemble proteins that direct body processes.
The period of prenatal development that takes place during the first two weeks after conception; it includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the wall of the uterus.
A way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact.
A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY.
low birth weight infants
Infants that weigh less than 5½ pounds at birth.
A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (or gametes).
Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself; two new cells are formed, each containing the same DNA as the original cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Method attempting to reduce the mother's pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth stages and relaxation techniques during delivery.
Nerve cells that handle information processing at the cellular level.
nonshared environmental experiences
The child's own unique experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not shared by another sibling; thus, experiences occurring within the family can be part of the "nonshared environment."
Process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development.
passive genotype-environment correlations
Correlations that exist when the biological parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child.
Observable and measurable characteristics of an individual, such as height, hair color, and intelligence.
A genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid; PKU is now easily detected—but, if left untreated, results in mental retardation and hyperactivity.
A major depressive episode that typically occurs about four weeks after delivery; women with this condition have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks during the postpartum period.
The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state.
Developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, a childbirth strategy similar to natural childbirth but one that teaches a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and provides details about anatomy and physiology.
Infants born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term
shared environmental experiences
Siblings' common experiences, such as their parents' personalities or intellectual orientation, the family's socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live.
A genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells and occurs most often in African Americans.
small for date infants
Infants whose birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered; also called small for gestational age infants. Small for date infants may be preterm or full-term.
Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or part of one X chromosome is deleted.
A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.
A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome.
A single cell formed through fertilization.