lifespan chapter 2

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1

Evolution pervasively influences how we make decisions.

David Buss

2

Prepared childbirth can assist mothers during labor.

Ferdinand Lamaze

3

Survivors are better adapted to their world than non-survivors.

Charles Darwin

4

Genes are collaborative and development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment.

Gilbert Gottlieb

5

Shared environment accounts for little of the variation in children's personalities.

Robert Plomin

6

There are three ways in which heredity and environment are correlated.

Sandra Scarr

7

The benefits conferred by evolutionary selection decrease with age.

Paul Baltes

8

Argued for a bidirectional link between biology and environment.

Albert Bandura

9

Argued that genes do not act independently.

David Moore

10

Massage therapy can improve at-risk infant outcomes.

Tiffany Field

11

The evolutionary process that favors individuals of a species that are best able to survive and reproduce is called:

natural selection.

12

According to Paul Baltes, the benefits conferred by evolutionary selection:

decrease with age.

13

Albert Bandura supports a bidirectional view of evolutionism in which:

environmental and biological conditions influence each other.

14

The units of hereditary information that direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins are called:

genes.

15

All cells in the human body, except the sperm and egg, have:

23 paired chromosomes.

16

The typical female chromosome pattern is:

XX.

17

A phenotype consists of:

physical and psychological characteristics.

18

The complete set of instructions for creating proteins that initiate the making of a human organism is referred to as the:

genome.

19

Which genetic disorder is caused by an extra chromosome?

Down syndrome

20

Which of these syndromes is NOT sex-linked?

Phenylketonuria

21

Which of the following is a genetic disorder that impairs the body's red blood cells?

Sickle-cell anemia

22

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg are called _____ twins.

identical

23

Adoption studies are designed to test the different effects of:

environment and heredity.

24

Mary begs her parents to allow her to take piano lessons. After her first several lessons, it quickly becomes apparent that Mary has a natural talent for music. This example best illustrates a(n) _____ correlation.

active genotype-environment

25

Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child will also learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?

Passive genotype-environment interaction

26

A fertilized ovum is called a(n):

zygote.

27

The period of prenatal development that occurs in the first two weeks after conception is called the _____ period.

germinal

28

The _____ of the embryo develops into the digestive and respiratory systems.

endoderm

29

On average, the fetal period of prenatal development lasts for _____ months.

7

30

Amniocentesis is a prenatal medical procedure that involves:

drawing a sample of the fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb.

31

Which of the following is a prenatal medical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are directed into a pregnant woman's abdomen?

Ultrasound sonography

32

Organs and tissues in an unborn baby are most vulnerable to environmental changes during:

organogenesis.

33

A teratogen is a(n):

environmental factor that produces birth defects.

34

Exposure to teratogens during the fetal period is likely to cause:

problems in the way organs function.

35

Which of the following is an example of a psychoactive drug?

Alcohol

36

A common characteristic of babies born to women who smoke during their pregnancies is:

low birth weight.

37

Women who plan to have children should have a blood test before they become pregnant to determine if they are immune to which infectious disease?

Rubella

38

A woman experiences an at-risk pregnancy when she has a:

negative Rh factor and her partner has a positive Rh factor.

39

A lack of folic acid in a pregnant woman's diet can result in offspring with:

spina bifida.

40

Which of the following statements is most accurate in regards to parental factors that influence pregnancy?

A baby with Down syndrome is rarely born to a mother under the age of 30.

41

How can maternal stress affect a fetus or a child?

Increased likelihood of a language delay

42

How many stages are there in the birthing process?

Three

43

What physiological change occurs within the fetus during the birthing process to ensure that he or she can withstand the stress of birth?

Secretion of large quantities of hormones

44

Which of the following is a complication of delivery?

Anoxia

45

A doula is a:

caregiver who helps a woman throughout childbirth.

46

Which of the following are/is a synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions during the birthing process?

Oxytocin

47

Cesarean deliveries:

are safer than breech deliveries.

48

Infants that are born three weeks or more before the pregnancy and reach full-term are referred to as _____ infants.

preterm

49

Janet, a newborn, receives a score of 3 on the Apgar Scale. Janet's score indicates that she:

might not survive.

50

To be labeled small for date, an infant must weigh less than _____ percent of all babies of the same gestational age.

90

51

A mother who is HIV-positive should avoid breast-feeding her infant.

TRUE

52

A newborn must have close contact with the mother in the first few days of life to develop optimally.

FALSE

53

Children born to women over the age of 30 are at an increased risk for Down syndrome.

FALSE

54

Chromosomes are contained in the nucleus of a cell.

TRUE

55

Drinking one or two servings of beer or wine a few days a week during pregnancy can have negative effects on the fetus.

TRUE

56

Humans have approximately 20,500 genes.

TRUE

57

In the United States, approximately 35 percent of babies are born at home.

FALSE

58

In the United States, there has been a decrease in low-birth-weight infants in the last two decades.

FALSE

59

Natural childbirth attempts to reduce a mother's pain through education, breathing methods, and relaxation techniques.

TRUE

60

Sickle-cell anemia occurs most often in Asian Americans.

FALSE

61

The epigenetic view emphasizes how heredity directs the kind of environmental experiences individuals have during their lifetime.

FALSE

62

The last stage of birth is the longest stage.

FALSE

63

The placenta is a sac that contains a clear fluid in which the embryo floats.

FALSE

64

The trophoblast develops into the systems that provide nutrition and support for the embryo.

TRUE

65

The type and severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen are linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the fetus.

TRUE

66

active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating.

67

adoption study

A study in which investigators seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed their heredity. Another form of the adoption study compares adoptive and biological siblings.

68

Apgar Scale

A widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth; it evaluates an infant's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability.

69

behavior genetics

The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development.

70

bonding

The formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth.

71

chromosomes

Threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.

72

DNA

A complex molecule that has a double helix shape and contains genetic information.

73

doula

A caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth.

74

Down syndrome

A chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21.

75

embryonic period

The period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear.

76

epigenetic view

Perspective that emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment.

77

evocative genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when the child's characteristics elicit certain types of environments.

78

evolutionary psychology

A branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior.

79

fertilization

A stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote.

80

fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)

A cluster of abnormalities that may appear in the off spring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy.

81

fetal period

The prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on average.

82

fragile X syndrome

A chromosomal disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks.

83

gene 3 environment (g 3 e) interaction

The interaction of a specific measured variation in the DNA and a specific measured aspect of the environment.

84

genes

Units of hereditary information composed of DNA. Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and assemble proteins that direct body processes.

85

germinal period

The period of prenatal development that takes place during the first two weeks after conception; it includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the wall of the uterus.

86

kangaroo care

A way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact.

87

Klinefelter syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY.

88

low birth weight infants

Infants that weigh less than 5½ pounds at birth.

89

meiosis

A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (or gametes).

90

mitosis

Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicates itself; two new cells are formed, each containing the same DNA as the original cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes.

91

natural childbirth

Method attempting to reduce the mother's pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth stages and relaxation techniques during delivery.

92

neurons

Nerve cells that handle information processing at the cellular level.

93

nonshared environmental experiences

The child's own unique experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not shared by another sibling; thus, experiences occurring within the family can be part of the "nonshared environment."

94

organogenesis

Process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development.

95

passive genotype-environment correlations

Correlations that exist when the biological parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child.

96

phenotype

Observable and measurable characteristics of an individual, such as height, hair color, and intelligence.

97

phenylketonuria (PKU)

A genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid; PKU is now easily detected—but, if left untreated, results in mental retardation and hyperactivity.

98

postpartum depression

A major depressive episode that typically occurs about four weeks after delivery; women with this condition have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks during the postpartum period.

99

postpartum period

The period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state.

100

prepared childbirth

Developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, a childbirth strategy similar to natural childbirth but one that teaches a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and provides details about anatomy and physiology.

101

preterm infants

Infants born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term

102

shared environmental experiences

Siblings' common experiences, such as their parents' personalities or intellectual orientation, the family's socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live.

103

sickle-cell anemia

A genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells and occurs most often in African Americans.

104

small for date infants

Infants whose birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered; also called small for gestational age infants. Small for date infants may be preterm or full-term.

105

teratogen

Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

106

Turner syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or part of one X chromosome is deleted.

107

twin study

A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins.

108

XYY syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome.

109

zygote

A single cell formed through fertilization.