Life-Span Development: Prenatal Development and Birth Flashcards


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1

Typical Prenatal Development

  • begins with fertilization and ends with birth
  • takes between 266 to 280 days (38 to 40 weeks)
  • divided into three periods:
    1. germinal
    2. embryonic
    3. fetal
2

The Germinal Period

  • takes place in the first two weeks after conception
  • includes the creation of the fertilized egg (called a zygote), cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
3

Blastocyst

  • the inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period
  • these cells later develop into the embryo
4

Trophoblast

  • the outer layer of cells that develops in the germinal period
  • these cells provide nutrition and support the embryo
5

Implantation

  • the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
  • takes place 11 to 15 days after conception
6

The Embryonic Period

  • the period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception
  • begins as the blastocyst attached to the uterine wall
  • the rate of cell differentiation intensifies
  • support system for cells form
  • organs appear
  • three layers of cells:
    • endoderm
    • mesoderm
    • ectoderm
7

Embryo

  • mass of cells
8

Endoderm

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  • inner layer of cells
  • will develop into the digestive and respiratory systems
9

Mesodem

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  • middle layer of cells
  • will develop into the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory and reproductive system
10

Ectoderm

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  • outermost layer of cells
  • will become the nervous system and brain, sensory receptors and skin parts
11

Amnion

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  • the life support system
  • bag-like
  • contains a clear fluid (amniotic fluid) in which the developing embryo floats
12

Amniotic Fluid

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  • provides an environment that is temperature and humidity controlled
  • shook proof
13

Umbilical Cord

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  • a life support system
  • contains 2 arteries and one vein
  • connects the baby to the placenta
14

Placenta

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  • life support system
  • consists of disk-shaped group of tissues in which small vessels from the mother and offspring interwine
15

Organogenesis

  • organ formation
  • takes place during the first two months of prenatal development
  • organs are especially vulnerable during this time
  • third week after conception = neural tube that eventually becomes spinal cord forms
  • about 21 days: eyes begin to appear
  • 24 days: the cells of the heart begin to differentiate
16

Fetal Period

  • lasts about seven months
  • prenatal period between 2 months after conception to birth
17

The Brain & Prenatal Development

  • neurons handle information processing at the cellular level in the brain
  • babies have approx 100 billion neurons by the time they are born
  • the third trimester of prenatal development and the first 2 years of postnatal life are characterized by connectivity and functioning of neurons
18

Neurons

  • nerve cells, which handle information processing at the cellular level in the brain
19

Nervous System & Prenatal Development

  • the nervous system begins forming as a long, hollow tube located in the embryos back
  • forms about 18 to 24 days after conception
20

Anencephaly

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  • the highest regions of the brain fail to develop
  • or when head end of the neural tube fails to close
  • baby dies in the womb, during childbirth or shortly after birth
21

Spina Bifida

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  • results in varying degrees of paralysis of the lower limbs
  • usually needs assistive devices: such as crutches, braces, or wheelchairs
  • risk factors: maternal diabetes and obesity
  • preventive measures: mother take adequate amounts of vitamin B folic acid
22

Neurogenesis

  • the generation of new neurons
23

Neuronal Migration

  • involves cells moving from their point of origin to their appropriate location
  • occurs at approx. 6 to 24 weeks
  • Once a cell has migrated to its target destination, it must mature and develop a more complex structure
24

Teratogen

  • any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively affect cognitive and behavioral outcomes
  • Ex:
    • food
    • drugs
    • chemical toxins
25

Teratogen Influence

  • Dose
    • the greater the dose of an agent the greater the effect
  • Gene Susceptibility
    • the type or severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen is linked to both the genotype of the pregnant mother and fetus/embryo
  • Time of Exposure
    • exposure to teratogens does more damage when it occurs at some points int development that at others
26

Critical Period

  • a fixed time period very early in development during which certain experiences or events can have a long-lasting effecting on development
27

Teratology

  • field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects
28

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

  • a cluster of abnormalities that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy
  • Abnormalities
    • facial deformities
    • defective limbs, face, and heart
    • learning problems
29

Normal Gestational Weight Gain

  • 11 to 20 pounds
30

Prenatal Care

  • involves a defined schedule of visits for medical care
  • includes:
    • screening for manageable conditions & treatable diseases (that can affect the baby or mother)
    • comprehensive educational, social, and nutritional services
    • exercise regularly
      • helps prevent constipation
      • conditions the body
      • reduces excessive weight gain
      • positive mental state
31

Stages of Birth

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  1. (first stage)
    • uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart and last up to a minute
    • these contractions cause the woman's cervix to stretch and open
    • at the end of the first birth stage, contractions dilate the cervix to an opening of about 10 cm (4 in)...so baby can move from the uterus to the birth canal
    • lasts an average of 6 to 12 hours
  2. (second stage)
    • begins when the baby's head starts to move through the cervix and the birth canal
    • typically lasts 45 mins to 1 hr
  3. (third stage)
    • afterbirth
      • the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled
      • lasts only a few minutes
32

Childbirth Setting & Attendants

  • in the US 99% of births take place in hospitals
  • Midwife
    • a person qualified to deliver babies and to care for women before, during, and after childbirth
  • Doula
    • a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth
33

Midwife

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  • a person qualified to deliver babies and to care for women before, during, and after childbirth
34

Doula

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  • a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth
35

Methods of Childbirth

  • Medication
  • Natural and Prepared Childbirth
  • Cesarean Delivery
36

Medication (methods of childbirth)

  • Analgesia
    • used to relieve pain
  • Anesthesia
    • used in late first stage of labor
    • blocks sensation in an area of the body
    • or block consciousness
    • epidural block
      • regional anesthesia that numbs the woman's body from the waist down
  • Oxytocin
    • a synthetic hormone
    • used to stimulate contractions
    • pitocin (example)
37

Natural Childbirth

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  • method that aims to reduce the mother's pain by decreasing her fear
  • done through education about childbirth
  • teaching breathing methods and relaxation techniques during delivery
38

Prepared Childbirth

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  • special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor
  • detailed anatomy and physiology course
39

Cesarean Delivery

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  • surgical procedure in which the baby is removed from the mother's uterus through an incision made in her abdomen
40

Breech Position

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  • the baby's position in the uterus causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina
41

Apgar Scale

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  • scale used assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth
  • evaluates an infants heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability
  • total score of 7 - 10 indicates that the newborn is in good condition
42

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

  • a measure that is used in the first month of life to assess the newborn's neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people and objects
43

Low Birth Weight Infants

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  • weigh less than 5½
44

Preterm Infants

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  • infants born before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation
45

Small for Date Infants

  • infants whose birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered
46

Nurturing Low-Weight and Preterm Infants

  1. kangaroo care
  2. massage therapy
47

Kangaroo Care

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  • involves skin to skin contact between baby and mother
  • 2 to 3 hours per day
  • helps to stabilize the preterm infant's heartbeat, temperature, and breathing
48

Postpartum Period

  • the period after childbirth when the mother adjusts both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth
49

Physical (postpartum adjustments)

  • fatigue
  • hormonal changes
50

Emotional & Psychological (postpartum adjustments)

  • Postpartum Depression
    • major depression episode
    • typically occurs about 4 wks after delivery
    • strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair