Rock and Minerals Flashcards


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created 8 years ago by sbaugh6
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1
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is a metallic. Very dense, gray, shiny, sulfide mineral. PbS

Galena

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Leaves a black streak, metallic group, oxide mineral, Fe3O4 (is magnetic)

Magnetite

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Gray streak, blackish gray, metallic group, native element (you can write with it) C

Graphite

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red and black, leaves a red streak, metallic group, oxide mineral. Fe203

Hematite

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black with gold, metallic group, black streak, fools gold, sulfide mineral FeS2

Pyrite

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Silicate mineral, Dark, red, glassy, non-metallic group, brittle Fe, Mg, Ca, Al

Garnet

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Salty Taste, not very dense, clear in color, cubic cleavage, halite mineral NaCl

Halite

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scratch with fingernail, non-metallic, light, sulfate mineral, soft, CaS04 2H20

Gypsum

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Reacts with HCL, white, brown, clear, perfect cleavage, no 90 angles, carbonate mineral CaCO3

Calcite

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Purples, blues, yellow, clear, non-metallic, Illinois state mineral, soft, cleavage, halide mineral CaF2

Fluorite

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Silicate mineral, always olive green, isolated tetrahedral, no cleavage, hard, non-metallic group MgFe

Olivine

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dark mica, silicate, cleaves into thin sheets, non-metallic group, KMgFeAl,

Biotite Mica

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light mica, silicate, breaks into thin sheets, cleavage, soft, non-metallic group, Al

muscovite mica

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pink and salmon colored, planes at 90, milky, silicate, non-metallic group, K Al

K Feldspar

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SiO2, silicate mineral, non-metallic group, pink, purple, brown, clear, breaks into sharp edges, crystals, no cleavage, hard

Quartz

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phaneritic, silicic, felsic, light colored, Quartz. K-feldspar

Granite

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crystals not visible, (aphanitic or porphyritic) silicic, felsic, light colored, quarts, K-feldspar

Rhyolite

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Intermediate, gray, phaneritic, K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, Biotite, quartz, augite

Diorite

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Intermediate, gray, porphyritic, or aphanitic, K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, quartz

Andesite

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Mafic, dark brown or black, phaneritic, Ca-plagioclase, Olivine,

Gabbro

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Mafic, dark brown or black, Porphyritic or aphanitic, Ca-plagioclase, Olivine

Basalt

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Solid Glass, no crystals present

Obsidian

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Vernacular Glass, gray to tan

Pumice

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Clastic , coarse grained, rounded clasts,

Conglomerate

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Coarse grained, angular clasts

Breccia

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Medium grained, mostly quartz

Quartz Sandstone

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Medium grained, feldspar, Quartz,

Arkosic Sandstone

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Dirty sandstone, medium grained, quartz, rock fragments,

Graywacke

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Very fine grained, very fine grained, clay minerals, and sometimes quartz

Shale

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swamp environments, decomposed plant material, black often shiny, organic carbon

Coal

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calcite

Coquina

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Halite

Rock Salt

33

SiO2

Chert

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alternating light and dark bands
light bands: quartz and feldspar
Dark bands: hornblende, augite, garnet, biotite, etc.

Gneiss

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Sheet-like grains; scaly, "shitose" texture. Sparkly or shiny appearance. ("Shiny Schist")
minerals: biotite, muscovite, chlorite. Minor amounts of quartz, or dark silicate minerals

Schist

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microscopic flakes of mica create a sheen (slight reflective surface)

Phyllite

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parallel orientation of of mica flakes created "slatey cleavage" planes of weakness

Slate

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very hard (scratches glass). visible grains of quartz

Quartzite