the building blocks of nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) that consists of a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base.
Nucleic acid in each cell that contains genetic information.
Double stranded helix
Contains sugar deoxyribose
The structure of DNA - 2 strands of nucleotides bonded together and twisted to form a double stranded helix shape.
Weak bonds between nitrogen bases that hold the 2 DNA strands together.
The 5 carbon sugar found in the nucleotides that make up DNA.
Nitrogen bases are part of a nucleotide. DNA has adenine, THYMINE, guanine, and cytosine. RNA has adenine, URACIL, guanine and cytosine.
Complementary Base Pairing Rules
Bases always bond together in specific pairs:
Adenine with Thymine (DNA) or Uracil (RNA)
Cytosine with Guanine
Rule states that in all DNA, the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine because of complementary base pairing.
Nucleic acid that uses the instructions stored in DNA to make proteins.
Usually single stranded
Contains sugar ribose
3 Type of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA) -copy of DNA, made during transcription and used in translation, contains codons to code for specific amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - wrapped with proteins to form ribosomes, used in translation
Transfer RNA (tRNA) - shaped like t, contains anticodon to match up with codon on mRNA, carries amino acids to make proteins during translation.
Single stranded RNA molecule that is a copy of DNA's genetic code. Contains codons. Made through transcription.
Type of RNA that combines with many small proteins to make up a ribosome.
Type of RNA that carries amino acids coded for in mRNA to make proteins. Contains anticodon.
1st process used to make proteins. Copies info in DNA and make a mRNA. Occurs in the nucleus.
DNA strands separate to expose 1 gene. RNA nucleotides are brought in to match up with exposed bases on DNA, following complementary base pair rules.
Enzyme that unwinds and unzips the DNA strands so transcription can occur.
Enzyme that is used in transcription that brings in RNA nucleotides to make mRNA.
Process that makes proteins. Instructions carried by mRNA are read by rRNA. Amino acids are brought in by tRNA and are assembled to make protein strand.
Uses all 3 types of RNA.
Occurs in cytoplasm
A sequence of 3 bases on mRNA that codes for a single amino acid.
3 bases on a tRNA molecule that complementary matchs a specific codon on a mRNA molecule, assuring that the correct amino acid is incorporated in a protein.
The building block of proteins. Amino Acids are bonded together with peptide bonds to form a protein molecule and are assembled during translation.
Composed of RNA and proteins. Makes proteins by translating the information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) into a polypeptide.
Triplets or codons of DNA sequences that code for a specific amino acid. It is the code that determines the amino acid sequence of proteins.
DNA strand wrapped around proteins.
Segment on DNA that codes for a protein and directs the development of some inherited traits.
Activation of a gene to produce a protein.
Type of DNA molecule that is created in a laboratory and incorporates the DNA of two or more organisms.
A single, circular piece of bacterial DNA that is separate from the main chromosome. Usually where DNA from other organisms is inserted for genetic engineering.
The study of the whole genome or entire set of DNA in an organism.
The full set of DNA in an organism's cells.
Proteins used for gene expression in eukaryotic cells. They control transcription. Without the transcription factors, RNA polymerase can't begin transcription of the gene.
Post Translation Regulation
Protein modification after translation that makes the protein functional. Before protein modification, the protein in not functional.
Random changes in DNA sequence. Can be harmful, beneficial, or have no effect.
Point or Substitution Mutations
Mutations that only change 1 base in DNA sequence.
Type of point mutation where 1 base is changed causing a substitution of amino acid in protein, which causes change in protein structure.
Type of point mutation where 1 base is changed causing a premature stop in protein production.
Type of point mutation where 1 base is change, but it codes for the same amino acid as original so the amino acid sequence is not changed.
Mutation of DNA where multiple bases which results in every codon is changed after addition or deletion.
Mutation of DNA or in chromosome genes where bases are removed or deleted.
Mutation of DNA where bases or in chromosome genes are added or inserted.
Chromosomal mutation where part of the chromosome is copied or duplicated.
Chromosomal mutation where part of a chromosome is transferred to a non homologous chromosome.
Chromosomal mutation where a part of a chromosome is reversed.
Chromosomal mutation where chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis resulting in 1 cell having an extra chromosome and 1 cell missing a chromosome.
Use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products.
The process of producing genetically identical individuals.
A test usded to identify and evaluate the DNA of a person's cells - creates a DNA profile that can be used to identify individuals.
The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A technique used to separate and sometimes purify macromolecules. Used in DNA fingerprinting to separate fragments of of DNA based on size to get a DNA profile.
Used in genetic modification which involves cutting a gene from one organism and pasting it into the DNA of another organism to form recombinant DNA.
The use of DNA as a drug to treat disease by delivering therapeutic DNA into a patient's cells.
Manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology.
Genetically Modified Organisms
Organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
A biotechnology technique that copies a specific DNA sequence to produce millions of copies of that DNA sequence
Enzymes that cuts DNA at or near a specific nucleotide sequence. Used to form recombinant DNA.
Also known as artificial selection. Process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits.
Undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered using the techniques of genetic engineering.
Proteins involved with controlling gene expression. If the repressor attaches to the DNA, it prevents transcription from occuring, so no protein is made and the gene is turned off.