Chemistry in Our Lives
What does hemoglobin do in the body?
 Hemoglobin consists of four polypeptide chains each containing a heme group with an iron atom that binds to oxygen in the lungs.
 From the lungs hemoglobin transports oxygen to the tissues of the body where it is used to provide energy.
 Once the oxygen is released, hemoglobin binds to carbon dioxide for transport to the lungs where it is released
What does hemoglobin do in the body? (simple answer)
 Hemoglobin transports oxygen to the tissues of the body and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs
Why does aspirin relieve headaches?
 When a part of the body is injured, substances called prostaglandins are produced, which cause inflammation and pain
 Aspirins acts to block the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing inflammation, pain, and fever.
Chemistry
 the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter
 happens all around you every day
Matter
 all the substances that make up the world

EXAMPLES:
 antacid
 water
 glass
 air
Examples of a Chemical Reaction
 tarnishing of silver
 antacid fizzing when dropped into water
 digesting food breaking it down into substances you need for energy and health
Chemicals
 substances that always have the same composition and properties wherever it is found

EXAMPLES:
 shampoo contains chemicals that remove the oil from hair
 chemicals in toothpaste clean your teeth
 chemicals in lotion help to moisturize skin
Antioxidants
 chemicals added to food to prevent it from spoiling
Calcium carbonate
 used as an abrasive to remove plaque
Sorbitol
 prevents loss of water and hardening of toothpaste
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
 used to loosen plaque
Titanium Dioxide
 makes toothpaste white and opaque
Triclosan
 inhibits bacteria that cause plaque and gum disease
Sodium Fluorophosphate
 prevents formation of cavities by strengthening tooth enamel with fluoride
Methyl Salicylate
 gives toothpaste a pleasant wintergreen flavor
Which of the following contains chemicals?
A. sunlight
B. fruit
C. milk
D. breakfast cereal
B,C,D
 sunlight is an energy given off by the sun therefore does not contains chemicals
Scientific Method
 a set of general principles that helps to describe how a
scientist thinks
 Observations
 Hypothesis
 Experiments
 Conclusion
Observations
 first step in scientific method
 information determined by noting and recording a natural phenomenon
 make observations about nature and ask questions about you observe
Hypothesis
 second step in scientific method
 propose a hypothesis
 which states a possible explanation of the observations
 should be stated in a way that it can be tested by experiments
Experiments
 a procedure that tests the validity of a hypothesis
 several experiments may be done to test the hypothesis
Conclusion
 an explanation of an observation that has been validated by repeated experiments that support a hypothesis
 done when the experiments are analyzed
 conclusion is made as to whether the hypothesis is true or false
Ones Place (place value)
 first place to the left of the decimal point
Tens Place (place value)
 second place to the left of the decimal point
Tenths Place (place value)
 first place to the right of the decimal point
Hundredths Place (place value)
 second place to the right of the decimal point
Graph
 represents the relationship between two variables
 contains to perpendicular axes
 has a horizontal axis/ x axis
 has a vertical axis/ y axis
Positive Number
 any number that is greater than zero and has a positive (+) sign
Negative Number
 any number that is less than zero and is written with e negative () sign
Multiplication and Division of Positive and Negative Numbers
 when two positive or two negative number are multiplied or divided, the answer is positive
 when a positive and a negative number are multiplied or divided, the answer is negative
Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers
 when two positive numbers are added ,the answer is positive
 when two negative numbers are added, the answer is negative
 when a positive and a negative are added, the smaller number is subtracted from the larger number and the result has the same sign as the larger number
Subtraction of Positive and Negative Numbers
 when two numbers are subtracted change the sign of the number to be subtracted
Calculating a Percentage
 divide the parts by the total (whole) and multiply by 100
Solving Equations
 place all like items on one side
 isolate the variable we need to solve for
 check your answer by substituting your value for x back into the original equations
Writing Numbers in Scientific Notation
 number has two parts
 coefficient
 has to be at least 1 but less than 10
 power of 10
 coefficient

EXAMPLE:
 2400 in scientific notation
 2.4 x 10^3
Scientific Notation on Calculator
Scientific Notation
 a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is at least 1 but less then 10 followed by a power of 10