Chemistry in Our Lives

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created 6 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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Chemistry
Chapter 1
updated 6 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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1

What does hemoglobin do in the body?

  • Hemoglobin consists of four polypeptide chains each containing a heme group with an iron atom that binds to oxygen in the lungs.
  • From the lungs hemoglobin transports oxygen to the tissues of the body where it is used to provide energy.
  • Once the oxygen is released, hemoglobin binds to carbon dioxide for transport to the lungs where it is released
2

What does hemoglobin do in the body? (simple answer)

  • Hemoglobin transports oxygen to the tissues of the body and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs
3

Why does aspirin relieve headaches?

  • When a part of the body is injured, substances called prostaglandins are produced, which cause inflammation and pain
  • Aspirins acts to block the production of prostaglandins, thereby reducing inflammation, pain, and fever.
4

Chemistry

  • the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter
  • happens all around you every day
5

Matter

  • all the substances that make up the world
  • EXAMPLES:
    • antacid
    • water
    • glass
    • air
6

Examples of a Chemical Reaction

  • tarnishing of silver
  • antacid fizzing when dropped into water
  • digesting food breaking it down into substances you need for energy and health
7

Chemicals

  • substances that always have the same composition and properties wherever it is found
  • EXAMPLES:
    • shampoo contains chemicals that remove the oil from hair
    • chemicals in toothpaste clean your teeth
    • chemicals in lotion help to moisturize skin
8

Antioxidants

  • chemicals added to food to prevent it from spoiling
9

Calcium carbonate

  • used as an abrasive to remove plaque
10

Sorbitol

  • prevents loss of water and hardening of toothpaste
11

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

  • used to loosen plaque
12

Titanium Dioxide

  • makes toothpaste white and opaque
13

Triclosan

  • inhibits bacteria that cause plaque and gum disease
14

Sodium Fluorophosphate

  • prevents formation of cavities by strengthening tooth enamel with fluoride
15

Methyl Salicylate

  • gives toothpaste a pleasant wintergreen flavor
16

Which of the following contains chemicals?

A. sunlight

B. fruit

C. milk

D. breakfast cereal

B,C,D

  • sunlight is an energy given off by the sun therefore does not contains chemicals
17

Scientific Method

  • a set of general principles that helps to describe how a scientist thinks
    1. Observations
    2. Hypothesis
    3. Experiments
    4. Conclusion
18

Observations

  • first step in scientific method
  • information determined by noting and recording a natural phenomenon
  • make observations about nature and ask questions about you observe
19

Hypothesis

  • second step in scientific method
  • propose a hypothesis
  • which states a possible explanation of the observations
  • should be stated in a way that it can be tested by experiments
20

Experiments

  • a procedure that tests the validity of a hypothesis
  • several experiments may be done to test the hypothesis
21

Conclusion

  • an explanation of an observation that has been validated by repeated experiments that support a hypothesis
  • done when the experiments are analyzed
  • conclusion is made as to whether the hypothesis is true or false
22

Ones Place (place value)

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  • first place to the left of the decimal point
23

Tens Place (place value)

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  • second place to the left of the decimal point
24

Tenths Place (place value)

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  • first place to the right of the decimal point
25

Hundredths Place (place value)

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  • second place to the right of the decimal point
26

Graph

  • represents the relationship between two variables
  • contains to perpendicular axes
  • has a horizontal axis/ x axis
  • has a vertical axis/ y axis
27

Positive Number

  • any number that is greater than zero and has a positive (+) sign
28

Negative Number

  • any number that is less than zero and is written with e negative (-) sign
29

Multiplication and Division of Positive and Negative Numbers

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  • when two positive or two negative number are multiplied or divided, the answer is positive
  • when a positive and a negative number are multiplied or divided, the answer is negative
30

Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers

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  • when two positive numbers are added ,the answer is positive
  • when two negative numbers are added, the answer is negative
  • when a positive and a negative are added, the smaller number is subtracted from the larger number and the result has the same sign as the larger number
31

Subtraction of Positive and Negative Numbers

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  • when two numbers are subtracted change the sign of the number to be subtracted
32

Calculating a Percentage

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  • divide the parts by the total (whole) and multiply by 100
33

Solving Equations

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  1. place all like items on one side
  2. isolate the variable we need to solve for
  3. check your answer by substituting your value for x back into the original equations
34

Writing Numbers in Scientific Notation

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  • number has two parts
    1. coefficient
      • has to be at least 1 but less than 10
    2. power of 10
  • EXAMPLE:
    • 2400 in scientific notation
    • 2.4 x 10^3
35

Scientific Notation on Calculator

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36

Scientific Notation

  • a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is at least 1 but less then 10 followed by a power of 10