Introduction to Pathophysiology

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1

Pathophysiology

  • the study of functional or physiologic changes in the body that result from disease processes
2

Pathology

  • the laboratory study of cell and tissue changes associated with disease
3

Disease

  • deviation from the normal state of homeostasis
4

Health

  • physical, mental, and social well-being
5

Homeostasis

  • the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment regardless of external changes
6

Seven Steps to Health

  1. Be a nonsmoker and avoid second hand smoke
  2. Eat 5 to 10 servings of vegetables and fruit a day. Choose high-fiber, low-fat foods. If you drink alcohol, limit your intake to one or two drinks a day
  3. Be physically active on a regular basis. This will also help you maintain a healthy weight
  4. Protect yourself and your family from the sun
  5. Follow cancer screening guidelines
  6. Visit your doctor or dentist if you notice any change in your normal state of health
  7. Follow health and safety instructions at home and at work, when using, storing, and disposing of hazardous materials
7

Jaundice

  • yellow color in the skin
  • sign or liver disease
  • results from the liver's inability to excrete bilirubin
8

Inflammation of the Liver

  • causes swelling of the tissue and stretching of the liver capsule, resulting in pain
9

Disease Prevention

  • maintaining routine vaccination programs
  • encouraging participation in screening programs
    • Ex: blood pressure clinics and vision screening
  • community health programs
10

Primary Prevention

  • the goal is to protect healthy perople from developing a disease or experiencing an injury in the first place
    • EXAMPLES:
      • Education about good nutrition, the importance of regular exercise, and the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
      • Education and legislation about proper seatbelt and helmet use
      • Regular exams and screening tests to monitor risk factors for illness
      • Immunization against infectious diseases
      • Controlling potential hazards at home and in the workplace
11

Secondary Prevention

  • happens after an illness or serious risk factors have already been diagnosed.
  • The goal is to halt or slow the progress of disease (if possible)
    • EXAMPLES:
      • telling people to take daily, low-dose aspirin to prevent a first or second heart attack or stroke
      • recommending regular exams & screening tests for people with known risk factors for illness
12

Tertiary Prevention

  • helps people manage complicated, long-term health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and chronic musculoskeletal pain
  • goals include preventing further physical deterioration and maximizing quality of life
    • EXAMPLES:
      • Cardiac or stroke rehabilitation programs
      • chronic pain management programs
      • patient support groups
13

Medical History

  • essential to identify any impact health care activities might have on a patient's condition, or how a patient's illness might complicate care
    • INCLUDES CURRENT OR PRIOR:
      • illnesses
      • allergies
      • hospitalizations
      • treatments
      • specific difficulties
      • any type of therapy or drugs (prescription, nonprescription, herbal items, including food supplements)
14

Gross Level

  • organ or system level
  • can be seen with the naked eye
15

Microscopic Level

  • cellular level
16

Biopsy

  • excision of small amounts of living tissue
  • used to examine the cause
17

Autopsy

  • examination of the body and organs after death
18

Diagnosis

  • identification of a specific disease through evaluation of signs and symptoms
  • more than factor is usually required to verify a diagnosis
19

Etiology

  • the causative factors of a disease
20

Idiopathic

  • when the cause of a disease is unknown
21

Iatrogenic

  • a disease or condition that is induced unintentionally in a patient by a physician
    • EXAMPLES:
      • bladder infection following catheterization
      • bone marrow damage caused by a prescription drug
22

Predisposing Factors

  • the tendencies that promote development of a disease in an individual
    • EXAMPLES:
      • age
      • gender
      • inherited factors
      • occupational exposure
      • certain dietary practices
23

Pathogenesis

  • the development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes
24

Acute Diseases

  • short-term illness that develops very quickly with marked signs
  • signs and symptoms are typically extreme
25

Chronic Diseases

  • usually mild condition
  • develops gradually
  • persists for a long time
  • usually causes more permanent tissue damage
26

Subclinical State

  • pathologic changes occur
  • no obvious manifestations
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Latent Stage

  • no symptoms or clinical signs are evident
  • remission
28

Incubation Period

  • the time between exposure to the microorganism and the onset of signs or symptoms
29

Prodromal Period

  • the time in the early development of a disease when one is aware of a change in the body, but the signs are nonspecific
    • EXAMPLES:
      • fatigue
      • headache
      • loss of appetite
  • laboratory test are usually negative during this period
30

Manifestations

  • the clinical evidence
  • the signs and symptoms of a disease
31

Local

  • found at the site of the problem
32

Systemic

  • general indicators of illness
  • EXAMPLE:
    • fever
33

Signs

  • objective indicators of a disease that are obvious to someone other than the affected individual
  • EXAMPLES:
    • fever
    • skin rash
34

Symptoms

  • subjective feelings
  • such as:
    • pain or nausea
35

Lesion

  • a specific local change int the tissue
36

Syndrome

  • a collection of signs and symptoms, often affecting more than one organ
37

Diagnostic Tests

  • laboratory tests that assist in the diagnosis of a specific disease
  • may also be used for monitoring the response to treatment or the progress of the disease
38

Remission

  • manifestations of the disease subside or are absent
39

Precipitating Factor

  • a condition that triggers an acute episode
  • EXAMPLE:
    • a seizure in an individual with a seizure disorder
40

Complications

  • new secondary or additional problems that arise after the original disease begins
  • EXAMPLE:
    • following a heart attack, a person may develop congestive heart failure
41

Therapy

  • treatment measures used to promote recovery or slow the progress of a disease
  • EXAMPLES:
    • surgery
    • drugs
    • physiotherapy
42

Sequelae

  • the potential unwanted outcomes of a disease
  • SUCH AS:
    • paralysis following recovery from a stroke
43

Convalascence

  • the period of recovery and return to normal health
44

Rehabilitation

  • maximizing function of diseased tissues
45

Morbidity

  • indicates the number of people with a particular disease within a group
46

Mortality

  • indicates the relative number of deaths resulting from a particular disease
47

Epidemiology

  • the science of tracking the pattern or occurrence of disease
48

Epidemics

  • occurs when there are a higher than expected number of cases of an infectious disease within a given area
49

Panemics

  • involve a higher number of cases in many regions of the globe
50

Occurrence of a Disease

  • tracked by incidence and prevalence
51

Incidence of a Disease

  • indicates the number of new cases in a given population
  • within a specific time period
52

Prevalence of a Disease

  • the number of new and old or existing cases within a specific population and time period
53

Communicable Diseases

  • infections that can spread from one person to another
54

Notifiable or Reportable Disease

  • diseases that must be reported by the physician to certain designated authorities
  • is done to prevent further spread of the disease & maintain public health
  • EXAMPLES:
    • SARS
    • HIV
    • Measles
    • AIDS
55

Autopsy or Postmortem Examination

  • performed after death to determine the exact cause of death
56

Atrophy

  • decrease in the size of cells
  • results in reduced tissue mass
57

Hypertrophy

  • increase in cell size
  • results in enlarged tissue mass
58

Hyperplasia

  • increased number of cells
  • results in enlarged tissue mass
59

Metaplasia

  • one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type
  • may result from a deficit in vitamin A
60

Dysplasia

  • tissue to in which the cells vary in size and shape
  • large nuclei
  • rate of mitosis is usually increased
61

Apoptosis

  • refers to programmed cell death
  • a normal occurrence in the body
62

Ischemia

  • decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a tissue or organ
63

Hypoxia

  • reduced oxygen in tissues
64

Exogenous

  • chemicals from outside the body
65

Endogenous

  • chemicals from inside the body
66

Microorganisms

  • living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
67

Initial Cell Damage

  • causes an alteration in a metabolic reaction
  • leads to loss of cell function