Life-Span Development: Introduction Flashcards


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updated 8 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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1

Development

  • the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span
2

Life Expectancy

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  • the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live
3

Life-Span Perspective

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  • views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss
4

Plasicity

  • the capacity for change
5

3 Types of Contextual Influences

  1. Normative Age-Graded
  2. Normative History-Graded
  3. Nonnormative Life Events
6

Normative Age-Graded Influence

  • similar for individuals in a particular group
  • Ex: menopause, puberty, commencement of education
7

Normative History-Graded Influence

  • common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances
  • Ex: assassination of JFK and the great depression
8

Nonnormative Life Events

  • unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a individuals life
  • Ex: pregnancy at a very young age or winning the lottery
9

Culture

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  • behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
10

Cross-Cultural Studies

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  • comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures
  • provides information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures.
11

Ethnicity

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  • a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language
12

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

  • grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
13

Gender

  • Characteristics of people as males or females
14

Social Policy

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  • national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
  • Ex: values, economics, and politics
15

Biological Processes

  • changes in an individual's physical nature
  • Ex: genes from parents, the development of the brain, height, and weight, nutrition, exercise, and hormonal changes
16

Cognitive Processes

  • changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language
17

Socioemotional Processes

  • changes in an individual's relationships with others, emotions, and personality
18

Prenatal Period

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  • conception to birth
  • involves tremendous growth from a single cell to an organism with brain and behavioral capabilities
19

Infancy

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  • the development period from birth to 18 or 24 months
  • extremely dependent on adults
  • psychological activities are just beginning
20

Early Childhood

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  • the developmental period from about 3 through 5 years
  • sometimes called preschool years
  • develop school readiness skills
21

Middle and Late Childhood

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  • the developmental period from about 6 to 10 years
22

Adolscence

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  • the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood
  • approx. 10 to 18 years
  • rapid physical change
23

Early Adulthood

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  • the developmental period that begins in the early 20s and lasts to through the 30s
  • time of establishing personal and economic independence
24

Middle Adulthood

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  • the developmental period from approx. 40 to about 60 years of age
25

Late Adulthood

  • the developmental period that begins in the 60s and lasts until death
  • time of life review and retirement
26

Four Ages According to Life Span Developmentalists

  1. first age
  2. second age
  3. third age
  4. fourth age
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First Age

  • childhood and adolscence
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Second Age

  • prime adulthood
  • ages 20 through 39
29

Third Age

  • approx. 60 through 79 years of age
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Fourth Age

  • approx. 80 years and older
31

Chronological Age

  • the number of years that have elapsed since birth
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Biological Age

  • a person's age in terms of biological health
33

Psychological Age

  • an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
34

Social Age

  • connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt
35

Nature-Nurture Issue

  • debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture
36

Nature

  • refers to an organism's biological inheritance
37

Nurture

  • refers to environmental experiences
38

Stability-Change Issue

  • involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change
39

Continuity-Discontinuity

  • debate about the extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
40

Scientific Method

  • an approach that can be used to obtain accurate information. It includes the following steps:
    1. conceptualize the problem
    2. collect data
    3. draw conclusions
    4. revise research conclusions and theory
41

Theory

  • an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions
42

Hypotheses

  • specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy
43

Theories of Development

  1. psychoanalytic theories
  2. cognitive theories
  3. behavioral theories
  4. ethological theory
  5. ecological theory
  6. an eclectic theoretical orientation
44

Psychoanalytic Theories

  • describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion

behavior is merely a a surface for characteristics

45

Laboratory

  • A controlled setting where many of the complex factors of the "real world" are absent
46

Naturalistic Observation

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  • observing behavior in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation
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Standardized Test

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  • a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring
  • allows a person performance to be compared with performance of other individuals
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Case Study

  • an in depth look at a single individual
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Descriptive Research

  • studies designed to observe and record behavior
50

Correlational Research

  • studies in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics
51

Experiment

  • a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while other factors are held constant
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Independent Variable

  • a manipulated, influential, experimental factor
  • is the potential cause
53

Dependent Variable

  • a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable
54

Experimental Group

  • a group whose experience is manipulated
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Control Group

  • a comparison group that is as similar to the experimental group as possible
56

Cross-Sectional Approach

  • a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time
57

Longitudinal Approach

  • a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more
58

Cohort Effects

  • effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person's actual age
59

Conducting Ethical Research

  1. informed consent
  2. confidentiality
  3. debriefing
  4. deception
60

Informed Consent

  • All participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop
61

Confidentiality

  • researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential
62

Debriefing

  • participants should be informed of the study's purpose and methods that were used