Life-Span Development: Introduction Flashcards


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updated 9 years ago by chaneasegarvey
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human growth and development, psychology
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1

Development

  • the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span

2

Life Expectancy

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  • the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live

3

Life-Span Perspective

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  • views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and as a process that involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss

4

Plasicity

  • the capacity for change

5

3 Types of Contextual Influences

  1. Normative Age-Graded
  2. Normative History-Graded
  3. Nonnormative Life Events

6

Normative Age-Graded Influence

  • similar for individuals in a particular group
  • Ex: menopause, puberty, commencement of education

7

Normative History-Graded Influence

  • common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances
  • Ex: assassination of JFK and the great depression

8

Nonnormative Life Events

  • unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a individuals life
  • Ex: pregnancy at a very young age or winning the lottery

9

Culture

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  • behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group of people that are passed on from generation to generation

10

Cross-Cultural Studies

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  • comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures
  • provides information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures.

11

Ethnicity

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  • a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language

12

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

  • grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics

13

Gender

  • Characteristics of people as males or females

14

Social Policy

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  • national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
  • Ex: values, economics, and politics

15

Biological Processes

  • changes in an individual's physical nature
  • Ex: genes from parents, the development of the brain, height, and weight, nutrition, exercise, and hormonal changes

16

Cognitive Processes

  • changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language

17

Socioemotional Processes

  • changes in an individual's relationships with others, emotions, and personality

18

Prenatal Period

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  • conception to birth
  • involves tremendous growth from a single cell to an organism with brain and behavioral capabilities

19

Infancy

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  • the development period from birth to 18 or 24 months
  • extremely dependent on adults
  • psychological activities are just beginning

20

Early Childhood

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  • the developmental period from about 3 through 5 years
  • sometimes called preschool years
  • develop school readiness skills

21

Middle and Late Childhood

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  • the developmental period from about 6 to 10 years

22

Adolscence

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  • the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood
  • approx. 10 to 18 years
  • rapid physical change

23

Early Adulthood

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  • the developmental period that begins in the early 20s and lasts to through the 30s
  • time of establishing personal and economic independence

24

Middle Adulthood

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  • the developmental period from approx. 40 to about 60 years of age

25

Late Adulthood

  • the developmental period that begins in the 60s and lasts until death
  • time of life review and retirement

26

Four Ages According to Life Span Developmentalists

  1. first age
  2. second age
  3. third age
  4. fourth age

27

First Age

  • childhood and adolscence

28

Second Age

  • prime adulthood
  • ages 20 through 39

29

Third Age

  • approx. 60 through 79 years of age

30

Fourth Age

  • approx. 80 years and older

31

Chronological Age

  • the number of years that have elapsed since birth

32

Biological Age

  • a person's age in terms of biological health

33

Psychological Age

  • an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age

34

Social Age

  • connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt

35

Nature-Nurture Issue

  • debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture

36

Nature

  • refers to an organism's biological inheritance

37

Nurture

  • refers to environmental experiences

38

Stability-Change Issue

  • involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change

39

Continuity-Discontinuity

  • debate about the extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)

40

Scientific Method

  • an approach that can be used to obtain accurate information. It includes the following steps:
    1. conceptualize the problem
    2. collect data
    3. draw conclusions
    4. revise research conclusions and theory

41

Theory

  • an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions

42

Hypotheses

  • specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy

43

Theories of Development

  1. psychoanalytic theories
  2. cognitive theories
  3. behavioral theories
  4. ethological theory
  5. ecological theory
  6. an eclectic theoretical orientation

44

Psychoanalytic Theories

  • describe development as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion

behavior is merely a a surface for characteristics

45

Laboratory

  • A controlled setting where many of the complex factors of the "real world" are absent

46

Naturalistic Observation

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  • observing behavior in real-world settings, making no effort to manipulate or control the situation

47

Standardized Test

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  • a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring
  • allows a person performance to be compared with performance of other individuals

48

Case Study

  • an in depth look at a single individual

49

Descriptive Research

  • studies designed to observe and record behavior

50

Correlational Research

  • studies in which the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics

51

Experiment

  • a carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are manipulated while other factors are held constant

52

Independent Variable

  • a manipulated, influential, experimental factor
  • is the potential cause

53

Dependent Variable

  • a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable

54

Experimental Group

  • a group whose experience is manipulated

55

Control Group

  • a comparison group that is as similar to the experimental group as possible

56

Cross-Sectional Approach

  • a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time

57

Longitudinal Approach

  • a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more

58

Cohort Effects

  • effects due to a person's time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person's actual age

59

Conducting Ethical Research

  1. informed consent
  2. confidentiality
  3. debriefing
  4. deception

60

Informed Consent

  • All participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop

61

Confidentiality

  • researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential

62

Debriefing

  • participants should be informed of the study's purpose and methods that were used