Father of modern psychology, known as a voluntarist and interested in volitional of conscious behavior. He established a new field in and of it self. His studies focused on attention, memory, sensory processes and reaction-time experiments.
Mary Whiton Calkins
founded an early psychology laboratory at Wellesley College and was the first woman president of the APA.
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to earn a Ph. D in psychology and authored an influential book, The Animal Mind.
Founded the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany in 1879?
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
did pioneering work on adolescent development and the fallacy of women’s inferiority.
First President of APA.
G. Stanley Hall
Exposed scholars in the US to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory.
G. Stanley Hall
World-famous for his psychoanalytic theory which attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focuses on the unconscious.
Established America's first psychological research laboratory and launched America's first psychology journal.
G. Stanley Hall
His work helped to shape the field of clinical psychology.
Contains the thoughts, memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
saying out loud something dealing with ones anxieties, conflicts, and/or desires.
An adherent of Freud who eventually broke with him; widely remembered for his theory of the collective unconscious, or the storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people’s ancestral past.
This task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these are related; dependent on introspection.
The careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images.
The task of psychology is to understand the purpose or function of behavior or consciousness, rather than its structure.
Fostered the development of behaviorism and modern-day applied psychology
Structuralism was put forth by a student of Wundt named?
The idea of functionalism was founded by who?
Founded by James and highly influenced by Darwinism and natural selection is what?
Stream of Consciousness
- looking for the flow of thoughts rather than the components (Structuralists)
Arguably the most influential psychologist to date. His work on operant conditioning revolutionized the behavioral movement. Humans and animals tend to repeat responses followed by positive outcomes.He extended his theoretical work to humans and most notably argued against the notion that we have free will.
B. F. Skinner
Believed that only observable events can be studied scientifically, and studied the effects of environment/external stimuli on the overt behavior of humans and animals.
View points these psychologists shared: Watson, B. F. Skinner, and Pavlov
Believe that humans are free, rational beings with the potential for personal growth - fundamentally different from animals and study the unique aspects of human experience. This school of psychology takes the most positive view of human nature. People's behavior is governed by their self-concepts. The key is to feel better about the self and recognize one’s own inherent potential.
Perspective involves the study of thoughts and mental processes and believe that human behavior cannot be fully understood without examining internal mental events or how people acquire, process, and store information. This field is a recent movement in psychology that has revived the old interest in mental and conscious events. The ways people think about events surely influences how they behave. Consequently focusing exclusively on overt behavior yields an incomplete picture of why individuals behave as they do.
Believe that an organism’s functioning can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical process that underlie behavior. Focuses on the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior.
Believe that behavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems, and that natural selection favors behaviors that enhance reproductive success. This approach examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations. Thus, for example, if a species is highly aggressive, because that aggression conveys a survival or reproductive advantage, those genes that promote aggressiveness are more likely to be passed on to the next generation.
Theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence.
Argued that the field had devoted too much attention to pathology, weakness, damage and ways to heal suffering.
Positive Psychology (3 areas of interest)
1. Positive subjective experience
2. Positive individual traits
3. Positive institutions and communities
Positive subjective experience
Positive emotions such as love, happiness, gratitude, contentment, and hope.
Positive Individual traits
courage, tolerance, creativity, and integrity.
Positive institutions and communities.
focus is on how societies can foster civil discourse, strong families, healthful work environments, supportive communities, etc.
Established in 1988 to serve exclusively as an advocate for the science of psychology since many academics/researchers felt that the APA (which represents both the scientific and professional branches) was too dominated by clinicians.
American Psychological Society