American Government and Politics Final Exam Review Guide Flashcards


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Study cards for Mrs. Snook's government final
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1

What are the three major powers of any government?

Legislative, Executive, and Judicial

2

Define: Dictatorship

All government authority and power is controlled by one man

3

Define: Democracy

Government ran by the people

4

What are the theories on the origins of government?

Force, evolution, divine right, and social contract

5

What are the purposes of the US government? Where can we find them?

Establish order, ensure domestic tranquility, provide for common defense, secure the blessings of liberty; found in the preamble of the U.S. Constitution

6

List the key foundations of American government?

Worth of the Individual, equality of all persons, necessity of freedom, majority rule with minority rights

7

Define: Limited Government

Government must act within the framework of the U.S. Constitution

8

Define: Limited Government

Government must act within the framework of the U.S. Constitution

9

What important documents did the founding fathers use to help them create the American government?

Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Petition of Right, Declaration of Independence

10

What type of parliamentary government was reflected in the American colonies?

Two chamber legislature, and upper house and a lower house

11

Describe the Framers of the Constitution: (professions, school, race, religious background)

White, educated, wealthy merchants, lawyers, and plantation owners

12

Describe the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan:

Virginia Plan was the large state plan that called for a 2-chamber legislature and representation based on population while the New Jersey Plan called for a 1-chamber legislature with representation being equal among the states.

13

Describe the “Great” / Connecticut Compromise

Created Congress with a 2-chamber legislature made up of the Senate (upper house) and the House of Representatives (lower chamber). Upper house would be based on equal representation while the lower chamber was based on population. They share the legislative power of government.

14

List the basic principles of the Constitution

Limited and ordered government, judicial review, separation of powers, checks and balances

15

Explain the difference between Checks and Balances and Separation of Powers

Checks and balances allows for each branch to play a role in the power of the other two while separation of powers splits the powers of government into separate working branches independent of each other.

16

List the four methods to add an Amendment to the Constitution, and which is used most often

Proposed by Congress (2/3 vote in both chambers) and ratified by ¾ of state’s legislatures or conventions

17

Define: Federalism

Government existing on multiple levels, national and state

18

Define delegated powers

Powers specifically granted to federal government by the U.S. Constitution

19

Define expressed powers

Powers specifically detailed by the U.S. Constitution

20

Define implied powers

Powers deemed necessary and proper by Article I section 8 clause 18.

21

Define inherent powers

Powers understood to belong to the federal government

22

Define reserved powers

Powers given to the states according to the 10th Amendment

23

Define concurrent powers

Powers that belong to both the federal and the state governments

24

Describe the difference between a term and a session of Congress

Term of Congress last two years because it pertains to the time in which all the members of Congress are the same and a session is the time in which they are in Washington doing their job.

25

What is the main role of Congress?

Make federal laws

26

Describe what Congress has the power to Tax

Imports, goods sold within the United States

27

Explain the process of Eminent Domain

Allows government to seize private property to serve a government purpose; must provide just compensation

28

Define: State of the Union Address

President addresses both chambers of Congress on his plan for the upcoming year

29

Who is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the Senate?

- Presiding officer of the House: Speaker of the House
- Presiding officer of the Senate: Vice President

30

Define: President Pro Temp

Presiding officer of the Senate when the Vice President is absent

31

Describe the purpose of a Conference Committee

Consists of members of the House and the Senate and is put together to create a finalized bill when different bills are created by the House of Reps and the Senate.

32

List the steps for how a bill becomes a law

Introduced by a sponsor, brought to a committee, comes out of committee and is brought to the floor of its original chamber for debate and vote, final bill read in its’ original chamber, goes to the opposing chamber (same routine followed), brought to the President’s desk for signature, if President vetoes Congress may override with a 2/3 vote in both chambers.

33

Define: Quorum

When enough members of either chamber are present to have a vote

34

Define: Filibuster

Used in the Senate to defeat a proposed bill from being passed. Used heavily during the Civil Rights era by racist southern representatives

35

. What is officially needed for someone to take the oath of office for the Vice President if the office becomes vacant?

Approval of the Senate

36

How are the President and Vice President elected? What determines the states # of votes?

Elected by the Electoral College. Number of votes per state in the Electoral College are equal to its representation in Congress

37

Describe the process of appointment by the President

President has the power to appoint federal judges and executive officials with the consent of 2/3 vote of the Senate

38

48. Describe the Military powers of the President

President is the commander-in-chief of the United States military

39

Explain the legislative powers the President can take over Congress

President has the power to veto bills passed by Congress

40

What jurisdiction does the Supreme Court exercise?

Both original and appellate jurisdiction; has the power to hear any case that it chooses to hear.

41

Which federal court has Original jurisdiction over most cases in Federal Court?

Lowest level; district court

42

Under what circumstances can a case be brought in federal court?

If it is a federal law; deals with federal officials; or with citizens of different states

43

Who are a group of people eligible to vote?

The electorate; Constituents

44

Define: Split Ticket Voting and what are its effects?

Shows that people are moving away from political party affiliation and voting for both Democrats and Republicans on the same ticket.

45

To which group does the Constitution give the power to set the date to hold Congressional elections to?

Congress

46

Define: Interest Group

Political group who seeks to persuade the opinions of others to share their political viewpoint on any number of political issues.

47

Explain the difference between Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

Civil liberties are protections from the government like the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendment and Civil Rights are protections given by the government against individuals like the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

48

Define: Due Process

Guarantee of certain protections when you are accused of a crime from the actions of law enforcement such as right to fair trial and attorney.

49

Guarantee of certain protections when you are accused of a crime from the actions of law enforcement such as right to fair trial and attorney.
a. Free Exercise Clause
b. Establishment Clause

a. Allows Americans to freely exercise their own religion, free from government intrusion
b. Forbids the government from establishing or endorsing any religious institution

50

How has the Supreme Court reasoned on the issue of flag burning as a protected form of Free Speech?

That flag burning is protected free speech

51

Which group of people are protected by shield laws?

Journalists

52

What clause in the Constitution protects an individual’s rights of assembly and petition?

Freedom of expression

53

Who issues a warrant? What legal standard must be present to issue a warrant?

The courts issue warrants and probable cause must be established prior to gaining a warrant

54

What does the Exclusionary Rule state about evidence?

If the evidence was gaining illegally by law enforcement then it cannot be used in court

55

Define: Double Jeopardy

Being tried twice for the same crime in the same court. It is unconstitutional

56

What rights for a person accused of a crime are protected under the 6th Amendment?

Fair, speedy, and public trial, as well as a right to an attorney

57

Amendment One

Freedom of Religion, Press, Speech, Assembly, Petition

58

Amendment Two

Right to Bear Arms

59

Amendment Three

Right ot not have to quarter Soldiers and seizures

60

Amendment Four

Right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures

61

Amendment Five

Right to grand jury indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law

62

Amendment Six

Right to be in-formed of charges be present when wit-nesses speak in court, to call defense witnesses, to have a lawyer.

63

Amendment Seven

Right to a jury trial in civil cases

64

Amendment Eight

Freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment

65

Amendment Nine

Guarantee of rights not listed in Constitution

66

Amendment Ten

Rights of states and people

67

Amendment Eleven

Prevents suits against states

68

Amendment Twelve

Election of the President(Election Procedures)

69

Amendment 13

Abolition of slavery

70

Amendment 14

Right to be free from discrimination in states to have due process of law, to have equal protection of the law

71

Amendment 15

Black suffrage

72

Amendment 16

Individual Income Tax

73

Amendment 17

Election of National Senators

74

Amendment 18

Prohibition of alcoholic beverages

75

Amendment 19

Women's Suffrage

76

Amendment 20

Inauguration day is January 20th and Congress should meet at least once every year

77

Amendment 21

Repeal to Prohibition (they can drink again)

78

Amendment 22

Limitation of Presidential term of office

79

Amendment 23

Voters in Washington D.C. given the right to vote for presidential electors

80

Amendment 24

Abolition of poll taxes

81

Amendment 25

Succession of offices of the President

82

Amendment 26

Voting age is set to 18

83

Amendment 27

Limits the power of Congress to increase its own salaries

84

What is an activist court?

Court that makes decisions that forge new ground such as Roe V Wade or Brown V Board of Education

85

What is an Amicus Curiae brief?

A brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it

86

What is the Attorney Journal?

Head of the Department of Justice

87

What did Buckley v Valeo do?

Limit on contributions is constitutional; limit on candidate spending is unconstitutional

88

What is the Commerce Clause?

The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries.

89

What is Congressional Oversight?

Review of executive branch decision making and implementation of laws

90

What is a Constituent?

A person whom a member of Congress has been elected to represent

91

What are delegates?

A representative chosen to attend the party's national convention; generally they are more activist and ideological than rank and file party members

92

What is devolution?

The transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states

93

What is the due process clause?

A clause to the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments that says no person shall be deprived of "life, liberty or property" without due process of the law.

94

What is the exclusionary rule?

Improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial

95

What is the Executive Order?

A rule issued by the president that has the force of law

96

What is federalism?

Relationship between states and the national government with shared powers

97

What are Federalists?

Believed in a strong central government in the shaping of the constitution

98

What is fiscal policy?

A government policy for dealing with the budget (especially with taxation and borrowing)

99

What is the free exercise clause?

Has been interpreted to outlaw teacher/school organized religious programs, but not student initiated.

100

What is gerrymandering?

Redistricting done to benefit the majority party (and incumbents)

101

What did Gideon v. Wainwright do?

A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government

102

Define grassroots

People at the local level; average voters, not professional politicians

103

What is Habeas Corpus?

The right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

104

What is the iron triangle?

The 3 groups that help shape policy in Congress –congressional committees, bureaucracy, and interest groups

105

What did Korematsu v. US do?

The court ruled that the ordering of Japanese=Americans into internment camps was constitutional

106

What is Litmus test?

An examination of the political ideology of a nominated judge

107

What is a majority Leader and minority leader?

Elected by representative parties to be their spokesmen

108

What did Marbury v Madison do?

Case that established Judicial Review

109

What did McCulloch v Maryland do?

Supreme Court decision upholding supremacy of the national government over the sates/implied powers clause.

110

What did US v Nixon do?

Supreme Court ruling that stated that there is no "absolute unqualified" presidential privilege of immunity.