sociology test unit 6 bureaucracy and Hierarchy

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1

An approach to life in which there is an emphasis on rules, efficiency, and practical results is _______________.

rationality

2

What is the major emphasis of the traditional orientation to life?

The past is the best guide for what should be done in the present.

3

Hank lives in a society that believes in the acceptance of rules, efficiency and practical results. Frank lives in a society that believes in customs and close personal relationships. Which society is more likely to be industrialized?

The society that believes in rules, efficiency, and practical results.

4

One of the first theorists to argue the adoption of capitalism was responsible for the decline of traditional orientation to social life was _____________.

Karl Marx

5

The early theorist who proposed religious beliefs were the key to whether or not a society embraced capitalism was __________.

Max Weber

6

Of the following, the two societies with the most traditional orientation to life would be the ____________ and ___________ society.

horticultural; agricultural

7

The Ku Klux Klan, March of Dimes, and Boy Scouts of America all have specific objectives that guide their operation. Even though their respective activities and membership rosters have significant differences all three would share the classification of being ______________.

formal organizations

8

Samantha works in a place that is hierarchial, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which the administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works in a(n) _________________.

bureaucracy

9

Rules and procedures that complicate the operation of a bureaucracy and impede the purpose of an organization are called ___________.

red tape

10

George Ritzer maintains that the organizational features of the fast food industry have gradually seeped into many aspects of humand social life. He describes this process as the ____________________.

McDonaldization of society

11

The university's administration has increased class size without receiving input from the faculty or considering the need for some courses to have low enrollments. Considering the idea of the alienated bureaucrat, what is the most probable reaction the professors will take to this latest administrative decision?

The faculty will feel they have lost ownership of their classes and are just "employees."

12

The experience of being cut off from the product of one's labor that results in a feeling of powerlessness is called ______________.

alienation

13

Nick was a promising caseworker for the agency. After earning several lower level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory postition. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the _____________.

Peter Principle

14

When Jonas Salk discovered a vaccine to prevent polio, the March of Dimes shifted tis focus from raising funds for combatting polio to raising funds for birth defect research. Sociologists would term this shift in focus an example of ________________.

goal displacement

15

Bureaucracies are sociologically significant because they represent ______________.

a fundamental change in how people relate to each other

16

The Boy Scouts , the Veterans of Foreign Wars, most civic organization, and all other organizations that people join because of mutual interest are all examples of ________________.

voluntary associations

17

As voluntary organizations, what do the College Young Democrats, Kiwanis Club, Uptown Stamp Collectors' Club, and National Rifle Association all have in common?

They offer people an identity.

18

A common thread that runs through all voluntary associations is ______________.

mutual interest

19

The term "The Iron Law of Oligarchy" refers to:

the domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite.

20

By a narrow margin, Dr. Moreau was recently elected chair of the largest academic department at Faber College. She has appointed faculty members who are loyal to her and support her views to the most influential and important committees in the department. This group of loyal colleagues Dr. Moreau is relying on to advance her policies is an example of a(n) ________________.

inner circle

21

The phenomenon found in large corporations that includes the values and beliefs of the corporation that shapes employee's attitudes and, by extension, the quality of their work is called _____________.

the corporate culture

22

Bob works at an automobile factory which organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. These are examples of attempts to:

humanize the work setting to develop human potential

23

Doug received a 68 on his first physics exam and feared he would fail the course. As a result, he lost interest in the course, was often absent, and eventually earned a failing grade. In reality, Doug's initial exam score of 68 was third highest in the class and other students who scored lower than Doug on the first exam eventually earned B's and C's for the course. This scenario is an example of _______________.

a self-fulfilling prophecy

24

People work more effectively in small groups and work teams than in a centralized command structure. What is the sociological explanation of this?

Small groups form primary relationships, thereby reducing alienation

25

It is becoming more common for corporations to provide daycare facilities as a fringe benefit for their employees. What does evaluative research into the cost and benefit of these facilities reveal?

Operating on-site daycare reduces employee absenteeism, improves production, and increases staff morale.

26

With respect to promotion which of the following was identified by William Ouchi as a difference between Japanese and American coroporations?

apanese workers work together as a team and are promoted as a team.

27

Unlike workers in the United States, if Arthur worked for a corporation in Japan, he would most likely be ________________.

loyal to the firm and would not go shopping

28

In the United States, lifetime job security in the workplace is referred to as ____________________.

tenure

29

Using computers at work to download music, play computer games, trade stocks, and make purchases on E-Bay are examples of a growing corporate problem called ___________.

cyber slacking

30

In order to increase profits and become more competitive in world markets, what actions have many Japanese corporations initiated over the past few years?

They are hiring more workers.