Identify the type of tissue that makes up the following:
A. The spinal cord
B. The lining of the larynx
C. The biceps muscle
A. Nervous tissue
B. Epithelial tissue
C. Muscular tissue
What organelle makes most of the ATP in the cell?
How do very large molecules, like proteins, enter a cell?
Is endocytosis an example of active or passive transport?
It is an example of active transport.
Define the following terms:
A. Endocrine glands
D. Stromal cells
E. Labile cells
A. Ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
B. Spindle-shaped cells that form connective tissue proper.
C. Mature cartilage cells
D. Cells that provide structure or support for parenchymal cells
E. Cells that undergo mitosis regularly and quickly
An exocrine gland secretes a substance that is rich in cytoplasm and phospholipids but no other cellular material. What kind of exocrine gland is it?
A membrane is found in a joint. What kind of membrane is it? What is its function?
Synovial membrane/ Its function is used for lubricating
How do epithelial cells get oxygen and nutrients?
Nutrients and oxygen diffuse to epithelial cells from underlying connective tissues that have abundant blood vessels.
What layer of skin is superficial to the dermal papillae?
An epidermal skin cell is keratinized. What layers of the epidermis is it NOT in?
If a hair cell contains no keratin, where is it?
It is in the matrix.
A bone is low on collagen. What will that do to the properties of the bone?
The bone will lose some of its tensile strength, thus making it more susceptible to breaking.
What kind of bone tissue contains trabeculae?
Cancellous bone tissue contains trabeculae.
By means of what structure do osteocytes communicate with one another?
They communicate with one another through the canaliculi.
Name three reasons that bone must be continually remodeled.
- Bone is remodeled in order to re-shape the bone as needed.
- Bone is remodeled to repair broken bones.
- Bone is remodeled to replace worn collagen or hydroxyapatite.
A person’s body starts actively secreting PTH. What gland is working, and why is this happening?
When the body is not creating enough substances such as calcium or vitamin D the parathyroid glands begin actively secreting PTH.
What hormones cause a rapid growth spurt in a child followed by no more growth?
What two types of joints in the body provide for little or no motion?
Which type of synovial joint offers the greatest range of motion?
Ball and Socket
Muscle tissue is striated when examined under a microscope. What kind of muscle tissue is this?
This is skeletal muscle.
Fill in the blanks
Without _______________ to destroy _____, a muscle cell would stay contracted.
Myosin ATP/Actin bond
How does the membrane action potential get to the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
It gets to it through the T-Tubules.
Calcium ions are diffusing across the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Is the cell beginning contraction or ending contraction?
It is beginning.
When a sarcomere contracts, what happens between the power stroke and the return stroke?
ATP binds to the myosin heads, causing them to release the active sites.
Lactic acid is building up in a muscle cell. What kind of respiration is occurring?
It is doing anaerobic respiration.
A muscle cell is using creatine phosphate to convert ADP into ATP. Does this require oxygen?
No, It does not require oxygen.
The orbicularis oris and what other muscle are called the kissing muscles?
The orbicularis oris and the buccinators are the kissing muscles.
How many axons does a multipolar neuron have?
Each multipolar neuron has one axon.
What is the purpose of a non-ciliated ependymal cell?
This cell secretes cerebrospinal fluid.
A nerve sends a signal from the CNS to the smooth muscles of the intestine. Is this a part of the autonomic nervous system or the somatic nervous system?
This is part of the autonomic nervous system.
What two conditions must be met for an axon to regenerate when severed? Do axons in the CNS regenerate when severed?
The axon must be covered in Shwann cells and the axon must be reasonably well aligned with its severed end. No, the axons in the CNS do not regenerate when severed.
A stimulus on a neuron does not result in an action potential. There are two reasons why this might not happen. What are those reasons?
The first reason is that the stimulus might be threshold, and the second reason is that the axon might be in its absolute refractory period.
A signal travels down an axon and then encounters an excitatory synapse. Compare the frequency of action potentials in the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron.
The frequency of action potential on the postsynaptic neuron will be lower than the frequency of the action potentials on the presynaptic neuron.
At a synapse, the release of neurotransmitters results in an opening of potassium channels at the postsynaptic membrane. Is this an inhibitory synapse or an excitatory synapse?
This is an inhibitory synapse.
A signal originates in one receptor and ends up creating action potentials in many different places in the CNS and PNS. What kind of neuron arrangement did it pass through?
It passed through a divergent circuit.
What is the main function of the ventricles in the brain?
They are the sites that produce cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid cushions the brain and provides a few nutrients to the brain.
Explain the purpose of a reflex arc.
The reflex arc allows you to react quickly to the pain; thus saving your skin from being burned beyond repaired.
Explain how a basic reflex arc works.
The reflex arc begins with sensory information. The sensory information from the afferent PNS nerve is sent into the spinal cord. The afferent message reaches the spinal cord and is sent to an association neuron that directs the message to an efferent neuron, then the efferent neuron sends the message to an effector in order to generate a response.
Name three cutaneous receptors and list their functions.
- Merkel’s disks: receptors for light touch
- Hair follicle receptors: receptors that detect the movement of hair
- Pacinian corpuscle: pressure receptors
In order for us to smell a substance, it must be volatile, partly water soluble, and partly fat soluble. List the reasons for each of those conditions.
- The substance must get airborne.
- The substance must get to the olfactory epithelium.
- The substance must get through the mucous layer and into the cell.
- The substance must be recognized by the receptors
When a sound wave hits your ear, which is the first structure that begins to vibrate? Which is the last structure?
The tympanic membrane vibrates first, and the hair cells of the spiral organ vibrate last.
Which two structures above are most important in terms of bending light for the purpose of focusing?
The lens and cornea are most important.
A hormone stimulates a cell to absorb chemicals which are outside of the cell. Did this hormone stimulate a membrane-bound receptor or an intracellular receptor?
It stimulated a membrane-bound cell.
A region in a blood vessel has prothrombinase in it. Which stage of hemostasis is taking place?
The blood clotting phase
In what type of blood could you find antibodies against the B antigen and the Rh antigen, but no antibodies against the A antigen?
You will find it in type A-.
Define the following terms:
A. Lymph nodes
B. Diffuse lymphatic tissue
C. Innate immunity
D. Acquired immunity
E. Humoral immunity
F. Cell-mediated immunity
A. Encapsulated masses of lymph tissue found along lymph vessels
B. Concentrations of lymphatic tissue with no clear boundaries
C. An immune response that is the same regardless of the pathogen or toxin encountered
D. An immune response targeted at a specific pathogen or toxin
E. Immunity which comes from antibodies in blood plasma
F. Immunity which comes from the actions of T-lymphocytes
The epiglottis and soft palate both participate in deglutition. What do they do?
The epiglottis closes off the larynx to prevent food from going down the wrong pipe, and the soft palate seals the nasal cavity to prevent breathing.
What are intestinal villi? Why are they so important?
Intestinal villi are tiny projections in the small intestine that radically increase its surface area. Nutrients are also absorbed through these.
What is wrong with the following statement?
“Certain cells in the stomach produce pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins.”
Cells cannot produce an enzyme that breaks down proteins. It would kill the cell. The cells in the stomach produce pepsinogen, which is activated into pepsin when it enters the gastric juice.
Without intrinsic factor, what can the body not do?
The body cannot absorb vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor.
What are the three classes of macronutrients?
The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
A person’s abdominal muscles are tightly contracted for breathing purposes. Is the person inhaling or exhaling? Is the breathing normal or forced?
The person is exhaling, and the breathing is forced.
A person’s sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles are contracted as far as possible for the purpose of breathing. Is the volume of air in the lungs closest to the tidal volume, residual capacity, functional residual capacity, or total lung capacity?
The volume of air in the lungs is closest to the total lung capacity.
A person’s airway becomes partially blocked due to an obstruction. Of the six factors which increase the efficiency of external respiration, which is affected?
The controlled relationship between ventilation and blood flow is affected.
In the Hering-Breuer reflex, receptors in the bronchioles send signals to what part of the brain? Are the signals excitatory or inhibitory?
They send signals to the medulla. The signals are inhibitory.
Blood pH is falling. What can the respiratory system do to help rectify the situation?
The respiratory system can increase the rate and depth of ventilation.
An increase in GCP will do what to GFR?
An increase in GCP will increase GFR.
Two substances are in the filtrate in equal concentration at the proximal tubule and both exceed their T-max concentration. If the reabsorption T-max is higher for substance A than substance B, compare the concentrations of A and B in the blood as it leaves the kidney.
Since substance A has a higher T-max, it will be reabsorbed in the blood. Thus, the concentration of A is greater in the blood than the concentration of substance B when it leaves the kidney’s.
What are juxtaglomerular cells and what do they do in the body?
The juxtaglomerular cells make up the juxtaglomerular apparatus. These cells are part of the third function of the urinary system to regulate the blood pressure.
What is the normal range for the pH of blood?
The normal range is from 7.35 to 7.45.
The pH of blood is 7.30. Is the person in acidosis or alkalosis?
The person is in acidosis.
When fertilization occurs, do the egg and cell contribute equal amounts of genetic material? If not, indicate which contributes more.
Yes, they each contribute equal amounts of genetic material.
When fertilization occurs, do the egg and cell contribute equal amounts of cytoplasm? If not, indicate which contributes more.
No, they do not contribute equal amounts of cytoplasm. The egg cell contributes more cytoplasm.
The amount of FSH and LH are both decreasing in a woman. Has ovulation occurred?
Yes, ovulation has occured.
Which ovarian hormone dominates the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?
Progesterone dominates the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
List the following stages of development in the proper order:
Which of the stages above are completed while the embryo is outside of the uterus?
The zygote, cleavage, and morula are completed outside of the uterus.