Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology: Urinary System Flashcards


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1

Three Functions of the Urinary System

  1. Excretion
  2. Elimination
  3. Homeostatic
    Regulation

2

Excretion

  • the removal of organic wastes from body fluids

3

Elimination

  • Discharge of waste products into the environment

4

Homeostatic Regulation

  • Of blood plasma volume and solute concentration

5

Organs of the Urinary System

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  • kidneys (2)
  • ureters (2)
  • urinary bladder
  • urethra

6

Kidneys (2)

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  • perform the excretory functions of the urinary system
  • produces urine located on either side of the vertebral
    column
  • left kidney lies slightly superior to the right kidney
    because of liver

7

Urine

  • fluid that contains ions, water, and small soluble
    compunds

8

Urinary Tract

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  • organs that eliminate urine
    1. ureters (2)
    2. Urinary Bladder
    3. Urethra

9

Ureters

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paired tubes

10

Urinary Bladder

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muscular sac for temporary storage of urine

11

Urethra

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exit tube

12

Urination

  • process of eliminating urine
  • the muscular urinary
    bladder contracts and forces urine through the urethra

13

Homeostatic Functions of the Urinary System

  • Regulates blood volume & blood pressure
    • by adjusting the volume of water lost in urine
      releases erythropoietin and renin
  • Regulates plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, and
    chloride
    • by controlling quantities lost in
      urine the kidneys
    • also control calcium ion levels through
      the synthesis of calcitriol
  • Helps stabilize blood pH
    • by controlling
      loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine

  • Conserves valuable nutrients
    • by preventing
      their loss in urine while removing organic wastes
    • especially (nitrogenous wastes) urea and uric acid
  • Assists the liver in detoxifying
    poisons

14

The left kidney lies slightly ___________ to the right kidney.

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superior

15

The superior surface of each kidney is capped by an ______ ______.

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adrenal gland

16

Three Concentric Layers of Connective Tissue that Protect &
Stabilize Each Kidney

  1. Fibrous Capsule
  2. Perinephric Fat
  3. Renal
    Fascia

17

Fibrous Capsule

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layer of collagen fibers covers outer surface of the
entire organ

18

Perinephric Fat

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thick layer of adipose tissue that surrounds the fibrous
capsule

19

Renal Fascia

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a dense, fibrous outer layer that anchors the kidney to
surrounding structures

20

Typical Adult Kidney

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  • reddish brown
  • 10 cm long
  • 5.5 cm wide
  • 3 cm thick
  • weighs about 150 g

21

Hilum

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  • medial indentation point of entry for the renal artery
    and renal nerves
  • point of exit for renal vein and
    ureter

22

Renal Sinus

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an internal cavity within the kidney lined by fibrous
renal capsule

23

Renal Cortex

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  • superficial portion of the kidney, in contact with the renal
    capsule
  • reddish-brown and granular

24

Renal Medulla

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consists of 6 to 18 triangular structures

25

Renal Pyramids

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  • 6 to 18 distinct triangular structures in renal medulla
  • base abuts cortex tip (renal papilla projects into
    renal sinus

26

Renal Columns

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  • bands of cortical tissue separates adjacent renal pyramids
    extend into medulla granular tissue

27

Renal Lobe

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  • consists of:
    • renal pyramid overlying area of
      renal cortex
    • adjacent tissues of renal columns
    • produces urine

28

Urine is produced in the ____ _____.

kidney lobes

29

Renal Papilla

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ducts discharge urine into minor calyx

30

Minor Calyx

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cup shaped drain

31

Major Calyx

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formed by four or five minor calyces

32

Renal Pelvis

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  • formed by 2 or 3 major calyces
  • funnel shaped chamber
  • fills most of the renal sinus
  • connected to
    ureters, which drains kidneys

33

Nephrons

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  • microscopic, tubular structures in cortex of each renal love
  • where urine production begins

34

Blood Supply to Kidneys

  • kidneys receive 20-25% of the total cardiac output
  • 1200 mL of blood flow through the kidneys each minute

35

Kidney receives blood through the _______ _______.

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renal artery

36

Segmental Arteries

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  • recieves blood from the renal artery
  • divides into interlobular arteries

37

Interlobular Arteries

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  • radiate outward through the renal columns between the renal pyramids
  • supply blood to the arcuate arteries

38

Arcuate Arteries

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  • arch along the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney

39

Afferent Arterioles

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  • delivers blood to the capillaries supplying individual nephrons

40

Cortical Radiate Veins/Interlobular Veins

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  • deliver blood to the arcuate veins
  • empty into interlobar veins

41

Interlobar Veins

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  • drain directly into renal vein

42

Renal Nerves

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  • innervate the kidneys and ureters
  • enters each kidney at the hilum
  • follows the branches of the renal arteries to reach individual nephrons

43

Sympathetic Innervation

  1. Adjusts rates of urine formation
    • by changing blood flow and blood pressure at the nephron
  2. Stimulates the release of renin
    • which restricts water and salt loss in urine by stimulation reabsorption by the nephron

44

The Nephron

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  • consists of:
    1. renal tubule
    2. renal corpuscle

45

Renal Corpuscle

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  • a spherical structure consisting of:
    1. glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
      • cup shaped chamber
    2. glomerulus
      • a capillary network
  • squamous cells

46

Glomerular (Bowman's) Capsule

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  • cup shaped chamber

47

Renal Tubule

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  • begins at renal corpuscle
  • long tubular passageway

48

Glomerulus

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  • consists of 50 intertwined capillaries
  • projects into the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
  • blood leaves the glomerulus in an efferent arteriole

49

Efferent Arteriole

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  • flows into a network of capillaries called peritubular capillaries
  • drain into small venules that return blood to the venous system

50

The process of filtration takes place in the _______ ________.

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renal corpuscle

51

Blood Pressure

  • forces water and dissolved solutes out of the glomerular capillaries into capsular space

52

Filtration

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  • takes place in the renal corpuscle
  • produces protein free solution (aka filtrate)
    • similar to blood plasma

53

Filtrate

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  • protein-free solution (similar to blood plasma)
  • moves from renal corpuscle to renal tubule

54

Three Functions of the Renal Tubule

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  1. Reabsorb useful organic nutrients that enter filtrate
  2. Reabsorb more than 90% of water that enter filtrate
  3. Secrete waste products that failed to enter renal corpuscle through filtration at glomerulus

55

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

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  • reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic matter
  • cuboidal cells with abundant microvilli

56

Distal Convoluted Tubule

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  • secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins
  • variable reabsorption of water, sodium ions, and calcium ions
  • cuboidal cells with few microvilli

57

Descending Limb of Loop of Henle

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  • further reabsorption of water
  • squamous cells

58

Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle

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  • reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions
  • low cuboidal cells

59

As the filtrate travels along the renal tubule, it is now called ______ _____.

tubular fluid

60

Collecting System

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  • series of tubes that carry tubular fluid away from the nephron
    1. collecting ducts
    2. papillary ducts

61

Each nephron empties into the __________ _________.

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collecting system

62

Collecting Ducts

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  • receives fluid from many nephrons
  • carried fluid to papillary ducts that drain into a minor calyx
  • cuboidal to columnar cells
  • reabsorption of water, sodium ions

63

Papillary Ducts

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  • columnar cells
  • conducts tubular fluid to minor calyx

64

Cortical Nephrons

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  • 85% of all nephrons
  • located mostly in superficial cortex of kidney
  • nephron loop is short
  • efferent arteriole delievers blood to a network of peritubular capillaries

65

Juxtamedullary Nephrons

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  • 15% of nephrons
  • long nephron loops that extend deep into the medulla
  • peritubular capillaries are connected to the vasa recta

66

Vasa Recta

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  • long straight capillaries that parallel the nephron loop

67

The Nephron Loop (Loop of Henle)

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  1. descending limb
    • fluid flows toward the renal pelvis
  2. ascending limb
    1. fluid flows toward the renal cortex

68

The Juxtaglomerular Complex

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  • an endocrine structure that secretes:
    1. hormone erythropoietin
    2. enzyme renin
  • formed by:
    1. macula densa
    2. juxtaglomerular cells

69

Macula Densa

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  • epithelial cells of DCT
  • near renal corpuscle
  • tall cells with densely clustered nuclei

70

The of Urine Production

  • maintain homeostasis
    • by regulating volume and composition of blood
    • including excretion of metabolic waste products

71

Three Organic Waste Products

  1. Urea
  2. Creatinine
  3. Uric Acid

72

Organic Waste Products

  • dissolved in bloodstream
  • are eliminated only while dissolved in urine
  • removal is accompanies by water loss